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DE Chem Unit 8

DCE Chemistry Unit 8 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
intermolecular forces forces of attraction between molecules that affect how a substance behaves(weaker than ionic and covalent bonds)
enthalpy the heat content of a system at constant pressure
entropy a measure of the disorder in a system
kinetic energy the energy an object has because of its motion
temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance
spontaneous reaction a reaction will likely occur on its own if it can achieve a decrease in energy and and increase in disorder
exothermic a reaction that releases heat into the surroundings
endothermic a reaction that absorbs heat from the surroundings
dipole-dipole force the attraction of the positive end of a polar molecule to the negative end of a neighboring polar molecule
solid particles in the sample have an orderly arrangement and move only in place
liquid particles in the sample are loosely packed together and can move past each other
gas particles in the sample are separated from each other by a great amount of open space
melting the process by which a solid becomes a liquid
enthalpy (heat) of fusion the amount of energy needed to melt a substance
enthalpy (heat) of vaporization the amount of energy needed to evaporate a substance
freezing the process by which a liquid becomes a solid
vaporization/evaporation the process by which a liquid becomes a gas
condensation the process by which a gas becomes a liquid
sublimation the process by which a solid becomes a gas
deposition the process by which a gas becomes a solid
heat capacity the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of a substance one degree Celsius
specific heat the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of a one gram of a substance one degree Celsius
heat of reaction the change in enthalpy for the reaction as written (delta H)
dipole a molecule that has a region of negative charge and a region of positive charge
dispersion forces attraction between non polar molecules caused by the movement of electrons creating momentary dipoles
hydrogen bonds the strongest intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom is attracted to a fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen atom
surface tension the tendency of a surface of a liquid to resist an external force
viscosity resistance to flow
adhesion when different molecules are attracted to one another due to intermolecular forces
cohesion when molecules of the same type are attracted to one another due to intermolecular forces
Created by: dcechem