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organic chemistry

vocabulary and concepts

organic chemistry Study of all chemicals containing carbon
uniqueness of carbon able to bond with itself to form long chains or rings, bind covalently with other elements, bind to itself and other elements in different arrangements
covalent compounds a chemical compound formed by the sharing of electrons. Has low solubility, low melting points, electrical conductivity
isomers Compounds with the same formula but different structures.
hydrocarbons Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen
alkanes a hydrocarbon containing only single covalent bonds
alkenes Hydrocarbons with one or more carbon
alkynes a carbon compound with a carbon
methane CH4 (hydrocarbon)
ethane C₂H₆
propane C₃H₈
butane C₄H₁₀
cyclic hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon that forms a ring
aromatic hydrocarbons A special class of cyclic, unsaturated hydrocarbons that have a pleasant smell
aromatic hydrocarbon uses solvents in lacquers, paints and enamels
substituted hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by atoms of other elements.
functional group Atoms or groups of atoms that will change the chemical properties of a hydrocarbon
haloalkanes organic molecules formed when a halogen or atoms are substituted for a hydrogen atom or atoms
alcohols organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups(
methanol CH3OH
carboxylic acids very weak acids with pungent odors...
polymers A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain.
monomers small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
useful polymers plastics and synthetic fibers
polymerization A chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer.
polyethylene consists of repeated units of ethylene monomers. used as a laxative...e.g. miralax
polytetraflouroethylene All about Teflon...used in cookware, valves and bearings also in lubricants
proteins Contains nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen; composed of polymers of amino acids
Created by: rufuspat