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Structure & Stability of Atoms

5th century B.C. the Greek philosopher expressed the belief that all matter is composed of very small, invisible particles, which he names ______ = uncuttable or indivisible Democritus, atomos
Indivisible building blocks of matter called atoms John Dalton
Can not create something new or destroy the atoms; Separates, Combines, or Rearranges atoms Chemical Reaction
Atoms made of more than one element; the ratio of the numbers of atoms of any two of the elements present is either an integer or a simple fraction. Compounds
What are each element made of? Atoms
You can not create or destroy matter (element/atom)- What is the name of john Dalton's law? Law of conservation of mass
What is the basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combination Atom
What is inside an atom? Subatomic particle
What are the 3 example (inner core of an atom) subatomic particles? protons, electrons, & neutrons
Which one has a positive charge, proton, neutron, electron? Electron
Which part of the Ray tube carries electrons and has a positive charge? Cathode Ray, Electron
Tells us that moving charged body behaves like a magnet and can interact with electric and magnetic fields through which it passes Electromagnetic Theory
Who discovered the Electron? JJ Thomson
Unit of an electric charge -1.76 x 10^8 C/g; C stands for coulomb
Unit charge of an electron -1.60 x 10^-19C
What is the mass of an electron formula? Charge/ Charge/Mass -> -1.60x10^-19 C over -1.76 x 10^8 C/g = 9.09 x 10^28g
Spontaneous emission of particles and/or radiation Radioactivity
Term used to describe the emission and transmission of energy through space in the form of waves Radiation
What does a radioactive substance does? Decays, & Breaks down spontaneously
Who discovered the X-ray? Wilhelm Rontgen
Who discovered the radioactivity in uranium, a compound that can darken photographic plates? Antoine Becquerel
Who discovered elements that has radioactivity? Marie Curie
What are the two elements that Marie Curie discovered? Polonium & Radium
What are the 3 types of rays emitted by radioactive elements? Aplha (a) Rays/particles (positive charge)B Rays or B particles, or beta rays(negative charge), gamma rays (y rays) neutral
Which ray has no affect by an external electric field and are high in energy? Gamma ray
By the early 1900s 2 features of atoms became clear They contain electrons and they are electrically neutral
Nucleus Atoms are located in the central core within the atom
Protons The positively charged particles in the nucleus; each has a mass of 1.67252 x 10^-24g
Which subatomic particles carries the same quantity of charge and is heavier than the opposite charged electron? Protons
How much does the nucleus volume carry? 1/10^13
A common non-SI unit for atomic length is? Angstom; 1 Angstrom = 100 pm; 1 pm = 1x10^-12m
A typical atomic radius is about _____ __ 100 pm
The radius of an atomic nucleus is only about? 5 x 10^-3 pm
_________ are confined to the nucleus of the atom, the __________ are conceived of as being spread out about the nucleus at some distance from. Protons, Electrons
Who discovered the existence of neutrons? James Chadwick
James Chadwick discovered that neutrons have a mass slightly _______ than that of _______. heavier, protons
Electron -1
Proton +1
Neutron 0
Electron 9.1095 x 10^-28 grams
Proton 1.67252 x 10^-24 grams
Neutron 1.67495 x 10^-24 grams
Electron -1.6022 x 10^-19 coulomb
Proton +1.6022 x 10^-19 coulomb
Neutron doesn't have a coulomb
Everything around you are made of what? 90 Elements naturally & 83 found on earth
What can be chemically changed or broken down into anything simpler? Elements
Which element is the only one that has 20g in the entire world? Francium
In 1869 who created the forerunner of the modern periodic table? Dmitri Mendeleev
List 2 important things that needs to be included in a scientific theory. (Explain) a known (fact) & (predict) something not yet known.
What are the 2 elements that Mendeleev left out blanks? Aluminum & Silicon
What are the 2 predictions of the 2 elements believe someone else will discover? Gallium & Germanium
What physical property did Mendeleev predicted each element? Gallium low melting point, atomic mass 68 Germanium - dark (GREY) color
What are the 2 things Mendeleev, Dmitri arranged the periodic table? By their relative atomic weight and their chemical reactivity
Where are the periods placed in the periodic table? Horizontally / moving across from left to right
How are elements placed in the periodic table? Upright pillar up and down
Why are elements are placed in groups? Chemical Properties
Where are the main groups located? List the group numbers? 1, 13-18
What are the 10 smaller groups in the periodic table located at? 1B-8B(8,9,10)
What do you call the 10 smaller groups in the periodic table? Transition Metals
What do you call the 14 groups located at the bottom of the table? Inner Transition Metal Groups
Property Any characteristic - used to describe or identify matter
List some examples of properties. Volume, amount, odor, color, & temperature, Melting point, solubility, & chemical behavior
Doesn't depend on the amount of a sample; Temperature & Melting Point Intensive Property
Intensive/Extensive Property - Ice cube and Glacier - Same temperature & melts at the same point Intensive Property
Do depend on the sample size - Length & Volume Extensive Property
Characteristics that don't involve a change in a sample's chemical makeup Physical Properties
Characteristics that do involve a change in chemical makeup Chemical Properties
List some examples of a physical property. Temperature, Color, Melting Point, Electrical Conductivity, Amount, Odor, Solubility, Hardness
List some examples of a chemical property. Rusting (of iron), Combustion(of gasoline), Tarnishing (of silver), Hardening (of cement)
Name all of the Alkali Metals. Lithium(Li), Sodium(Na), Potassium(K), Rubidium (Rb)
Silvery Metal Alkali Metal
Reacts rapidly often violently w/ H20 = Form products that are Highly Alkaline or basic Alkali Metal
Never found in nature only with other elements Alkali Metals
List all the Alkaline-Earth Metals Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Stronium (Sr), Barium (Ba), & Radium (Ra)
Are lustrous, Silvery metals, less reactive than ______ metals Alkaline, Alkali
List all of the Halogens. Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), & Iodine (I)
Colorful Corrosive Nonmetals Halogens
Found in nature but only in combinations with other elements also known as salts Halogens
List all of the Noble Gases. Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), & Radon (Rn)
Colorless gases Noble Gases
Very low chemical reactivity Noble Gases
What are the 2 Noble gases that does not combine with any other element? Helium & Neon
What are the 3 other noble gas elements that are combined with other elements? Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe)
Largest category of elements Metals
Bounded on the right by a zigzag line running from Boron (B) at the top to Astatine (At) at the bottom. Metals
Most have a silvery shine we normally associate with Metals
What is the only metal that is solid in room temperature? Mercury (Hg)
Are malleable Metals
Can be twisted & drawn intro wires without breaking Metals
Are good conductors of heat & electricity Metals
Which major group categories are located in the far right side? Nonmetals
Which nonmetal is considered as a liquid? Bromine
Which five nonmetal solids are solid at room temperature? Carbon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Selenium, & Iodine
None are silvery in appearance & several are brightly colored Nonmetals
The solid nonmetals are _______ rather than malleable & are ____ conductors of ____ & ___________. Brittle, Poor, Heat, & Electricity
Located in the zigzag boundary Semi-metals
List all of the 9 elements located in the zig zag boundary. Boron, Silicon, Germanium, Arsenic, Antimony, Tellurium, & Astatine
Are intermediate between those of their metallic & nonmetallic neighbors Semi-metals
They are silvery in appearance and all are solid at room temperature, are BRITTLE and tend to be poor conductors of heat and electricity Semi-metals
The Englishman (1627-1691) is generally credited with being the first to study chemistry as a separate intellectual discipline & the first to carry out rigorous chemical experiments Robert Boyle
List some of what Robert Boyle discovered. Element cannot be chemically broken down further, Atoms of each element can join with other elements to form a Chemical compounds
First to learn how to prepare an isolation or separate a chemical compound Joseph Priestly (1733-1804)
Standard format for writing chemical transformations, which lists the symbols of its constituent elements and uses subscripts to indicate the number of atoms of each. If no subscript is given, the number 1 is understood. Chemical Formula
Chemical Equation - Substances undergoing change are written on the left Reactant
Chemical Equation - An arrow is drawn between them to indicate the direction of the chemical transformation Chemical Equation
Chemical Equation - Substances being formed are written on the right Product
Which element is the key substance in combustion of which Antoine Lavoisier discovered? Oxygen
When hydrogen gas burns & combines with oxygen to yield H2O = the mass of the water formed is equal to the mass of the hydrogen & oxygen consumed. Combustion
Combustion is an example of which law? Law of Mass Conservation
Mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions Law of Mass Conservation
Who formed the 2nd fundamental chemical principle(1754-1826)? Joseph Proust
Different samples of pure chemical compound always contain the same proportion of elements by mass. Law of Definite Proportions
H2O contains 1 part hydrogen & 8 parts of oxygen by mass; Elements combine in specific proportions, not in random proportions. Law of Definite Proportions
An English School Teacher (1766-1844) created the 3rd chemistry law John Dalton
Elements can combine in different ways to form different chemical compounds, whose mass ratios are simple whole-number multiples of each other. Law of Multiple Proportions
John Dalton concluded that elements are made up of ____ ________ called _______ Tiny particles called atoms
John Dalton states that in order to distinguish the difference between atoms is their _____; atoms of the same element has the same ____, but atoms of different elements have different _______ Mass, mass, masses
John Dalton states that in order to make a chemical combination of elements to make different chemical compounds occur when atoms ____ together in _____ _____-number ratios Bond, Whole number
____________ parts of atoms are never involved in chemical reactions Fractional
Chemical reactions only rearrange how atoms are combined in chemical compounds; the atoms themselves _______ ________ including the _____ Don't change, mass
Created by: 1StellarStar



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