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# Prob/Stat Chapter 1

### Vocabulary

Statistics the study of how to collect, organize, analyze, and interpret numerical imformation from data
Individuals people or objects included in the study
Variable the characteristic of the individual to be measured or observed
Quantitative variable has a value or numerical measurement for which operations such as addition or averaging make sense
Qualitative variable describes an individual by placing the individual into a category or group such as male or female
Population data variable is from every individual of interest
Sample data variable is from only some of the individuals of interest
Descriptive statistics involves methods of organizing, picturing, and summarizing information from samples or populations
Inferential statistics involves methods of using information from a sample to draw conclusions regarding the population
Nominal We can put the data into categories
Ordinal We can order the data from worst to best
Interval We can order the data and also take the differences between the data values. Does not include zero
Ratio We can order the data, take differences, and also fine the ratio between data values. Does include zero
Census measurements or observations from the entire population are used
Sample measurements or observations from a representative part of the population should be used
Observational study observations and measurements of individuals are conducted in a way that doesn't change the response or the variable being measured
Experiment a treatment is deliberately imposed on the individuals in order to observe a possible change in the response or variable being measured
Control group group that receives a dummy treatment disguised as the real treatment
Confounding variables variables taht might be an underlying cause of a change in response in the experiment group
Replication reduces the possibility that the differences in pain relief for the two groups occured by chance alone.
Statistics the study of how to collect, organize, analyze, and interpret numerical imformation from data
Individuals people or objects included in the study
Variable the characteristic of the individual to be measured or observed
Quantitative variable has a value or numerical measurement for which operations such as addition or averaging make sense
Qualitative variable describes an individual by placing the individual into a category or group such as male or female
Population data variable is from every individual of interest
Sample data variable is from only some of the individuals of interest
Descriptive statistics involves methods of organizing, picturing, and summarizing information from samples or populations
Inferential statistics involves methods of using information from a sample to draw conclusions regarding the population
Nominal We can put the data into categories
Ordinal We can order the data from worst to best
Interval We can order the data and also take the differences between the data values. Does not include zero
Ratio We can order the data, take differences, and also fine the ratio between data values. Does include zero
Census measurements or observations from the entire population are used
Sample measurements or observations from a representative part of the population should be used
Observational study observations and measurements of individuals are conducted in a way that doesn't change the response or the variable being measured
Experiment a treatment is deliberately imposed on the individuals in order to observe a possible change in the response or variable being measured
Control group group that receives a dummy treatment disguised as the real treatment
Confounding variables variables taht might be an underlying cause of a change in response in the experiment group