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Second quarter words.

Mole Ratio The ratio of moles of one substance to moles of another substance in a balanced chemical equation.
Stoichiometry The process of using a balanced chemical equation to determine the relative masses of reactants and products involved in a reaction.
Limiting Reactant The reactant that is completely used up when a reaction is run to completion.
Theoretical Yield The maximum amount of a given product that can be formed when the limiting reactant is completely consumed.
Percent Yield The actual yield of a product as the percentage of the theoretical yield.
Energy The ability to do work or to produce heat.
Potential Energy Energy due to position or composition.
Kinetic Energy Energy due to the motion of the object.
Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another.
Work Force acting over a distance.
State Function A property of a system that does not depend on the pathway.
Temperature Measure of the random motions (average kinetic energy)of the components of a substance.
Heat Flow of energy due to a temperature difference.
Exothermic Refers to a process in which energy (as heat) flows out of the system into the surroundings.
Endothermic Refers to a process in which energy (as heat) flows from the surroundings into the system.
Thermodynamics The study of energy.
First Law of Thermodynamics The energy of the universe is constant.
Internal Energy Sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all particles in the system.
Calorie The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one Celsius degree.
Specific Heat Capacity The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one Celsius degree.
Enthalpy At constant pressure, a change in enthalpy is equal to the energy flow as heat.
Calorimeter A device used to determine the heat associated with a chemical or physical change.
Hess's Law The change in enthalpy in going from a given set of reactants to a given set of products does not depend on the number of steps in the reaction.
Fossil Fuel Fuel that consists of carbon-based molecules derived from the decomposition of once living organisms.
Petroleum A think, dark liquid composed mostly of hydrocarbon compounds.
Natural Gas A gaseous fossil fuel, mostly consisting methane and usually associated with petroleum deposits.
Coal A solid fossil fuel mostly consisting of carbon.
Greenhouse Effect The process by which an atmosphere warms a planet.
Electromagnetic Radiation Radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum.
Wavelength The distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave.
Frequency The number of waves per second that pass a given point in space.
Photon A particle of electromagnetic radiation.
Orbital The three-dimensional region in which there is a high probability of finding an electron in an atom.
Pauli Exclusion Principle In a given atom, no two electrons can occupy the same atomic orbital and have the same spin.
Electron Configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Valence Electron The electron in the outermost principal energy level of an atom.
Core Electron An inner electron; an electron not in the outermost principal energy level of an atom.
Bond The force that holds two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit.
Bond Energy The energy required to break a given chemical bond.
Ionic Bonding The attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Ionic Compound A compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions.
Polar Covalent Bond A covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts the shared electrons more than the other atom.
Electronegativity The tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.
Dipole Moment A property of a molecule in which the charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and the center of negative charge.
Lewis Structure A representation of a molecule or polyatomic ion showing how valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule or ion.
Single Bond A covalent or polar covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared by two atoms.
Double Bond A covalent or polar covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms.
Triple Bond A covalent or polar covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms.
Barometer A device that measures atmospheric pressure.
Absolute Zero -273 Degrees Delicious
Charles's Law The volume of a given sample of a gas is directly related to the temperature of the gas at constant pressure. V=bT
Ideal Gas Law PV= nRT
Ideal Gas A hypothetical gas that exactly obeys the ideal gas law.
Partial Pressure The independent pressure exerted by a gas in a mixture of gases.
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure For a mixture of gases in a container, the total pressure exerted is the sum of the partial pressures of each of the gases.
Molar Volume The volume of 1 mole of an ideal gas is equal to 22.4 L at 0 degrees Celsius and 1 atm.
Intermolecular Forces Attractive forces that occur between molecules.
Intramolecular Forces Attractive forces that occur between atoms in a molecule; chemical bonds.
Normal Boiling Point The boiling temperature of a liquid under one atmosphere of pressure. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is exactly one atmosphere.
Normal Freezing Point The freezing temperature of a liquid under one atmosphere of pressure.
Vaporization The process in which a liquid in converted into a gas.
Condenstation The process in which a vapor is converted into a liquid.
Vapor Pressure The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid phase at a certain temperature.
Molecular Solid A solid composed of molecules.
Atomic Solid A solid that contains atoms at the lattice points.
Alloy A substance that contains a mixture of elements and has metallic properties.
Solution A homogeneous mixture.
Solvent The dissolving medium in a solution.
Solute The substance dissolved in the solvent to make a solution.
Aqueous Solution A solution with water as a solvent.
Saturated Describes a solution that contains as much solute as will dissolve at that temperature.
Unsaturated Describes a solution in which more solute can dissolve than is dissolved already at that temperature.
Supersaturated Describes a solution that contains more solute than a saturated solution will hold at that temperature.
Concentrated Describes a solution in which a relatively large amount of solute is dissolved in a solution.
Dilute Describes a solution in which a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved in a solution.
Standard Solution A solution in which the concentration is accurately known.
Dilution The process of adding a solvent to a solution to lower the concentration of a solute.
Neutralized Reaction An acid-base reaction.
Equivalent Weight The mass (in grams) of one equivalent of an acid or a base.
Colligative Property A property that is dependent only on the number of solute particles present in a solution.
Acid A substance that produces hydrogen ions in a solution; proton donor.
Base A substance that produces hydroxide ions in a solution; a substance that accepts protons.
Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases Acids produce hydrogen ions in a solution; bases produce hydroxide ions in a solution.
Conjugate Acid The substance formed when a proton is added to a base.
Conjugate Base The remaining substance when a proton is lost from an acid.
Strong Acid An acid that completely dissociates to produce H+ ions in a solution.
Weak Acid An acid that dissociates to a slight extent in aqueous solution.
Amphoteric Substance A substance that can behave either as an acid or as a base.
Indicator A chemical that changes color depending on the pH of a solution.
pH Meter A device used to measure the pH of a solution.
Titration A technique in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution.
Equivalence Point The point in a titration when enough titrate has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution that is being titrated.
Titrated Curve A plot of pH of solution versus volume of titrant added to a given solution.
Buffered Solution A solution that resists a change in pH when wither an acid or a base are added.
Created by: Vannydoll10