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Bonds and reactions

chapter 10 vocabulary

Valence Electron The electrons that are in the highest energy level of an atom and that are involved in chemical bonding. They are in the outer shell.
Electron Dot Diagram A representation (picture) of the VALENCE ELECTRONS in an atom, using dots.
Chemical Bond The force of attraction that holds 2 atoms together.
Ion An atom or group of atoms that has become electrically charged.
Polyatomic Ion An ion that is made up of more than one atom.
Ionic Bond The attraction between oppositely charged atoms.
Ionic Compound A compound that consists of (has) positive and negative atoms.
Chemical Formula Symbols that show the elements in a compound and the ratio of atoms.
Subscript A number in a chemical formula that tells the number of atoms in a molecule or the ratio of elements in a compound.
Crystal A solid in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats again and again.
Covalent Bond A chemical bond that forms when two atoms share electrons.
Molecule A neutral group of two or more atoms that are held together by covalent bonds.
Double Bond A chemical bond formed when atoms share two pairs of electrons.
Triple Bond A chemical bond formed when atoms share three pairs of electrons.
Molecular Compound A compound that is composed of molecules
Nonpolar bond A covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally.
Polar Bond A covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally.
Physical Change A change that alters the form or appearance of a material but does not make the material into another substance.
Chemical Change A change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form a new substance.
Reactant A substance that enters into a chemical reaction.
Product A substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction.
Precipitate A solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.
Exothermic Reaction A reaction that releases energy, usually in the form of heat.
Endothermic Reaction A reaction that absorbs energy.
Chemical Equation A short, easy way, to show a chemical reaction, using symbols.
Law of Conservation of Mass The principle that the total amount of matter is neither created nor destroyed during any chemical or physical change.
Open System A system in which matter can enter from or escape into the surroundings.
Coefficient A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.
Synthesis A chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combines to form a new, more complex substance.
Decomposition A chemical reaction that breaks down compounds into simpler products.
Replacement A reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound or when two elements in different compounds trade places
Created by: superstephens