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# P4.3 - Thermal

### Thermal Physics - OCR A2 Physics

Define heat: A measure of the total thermal energy in a system.
Define temperature: A measure of the average kinetic energy of particles.
Define specific heat capacity: The energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of substance by 1 degree.
Define specific heat of vaporisation: The energy required to change 1kg of liquid into 1kg of gas at constant temperature.
Define internal energy: The sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of molecules within a substance.
What is the pressure law? At constant volume, pressure is directly proportional to the temperature.
What is Boyle's law? At a constant temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional.
What is Charles' law? At a constant pressure, the volume is directly proportional to the temperature.
Define pressure: Force per unit area, it is the result of collisions between particles themselves, or particles and the walls of their container.
Give three assumptions used in the kinetic theory of gases: The gas consists of a large number of molecules. The molecules move randomly. Collisions are elastic.
What is the equation for the kinetic energy in a single atom? KE = 3/2KbT
What is the equation for the kinetic energy in a mole? KE = 3/2nRT
What is an absolute scale of temperature? A temperature scale measured from absolute zero in kelvins.
What changes and what remains constant during a change in state of a system? The internal energy changes, the temperature doesn't.
What is Brownian motion? The observation of random motion in air/smoke particles. The experiment saw the smoke particles appear as bright specks moving in a completely random motion.
What happens to a gas as the temperature increases? The average speed increases, the maximum speed increases, and there is a wider range of speeds.
What is an ideal gas? A gas that has internal energy only in the form of random kinetic energy.
Created by: Sparksy

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