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# P4.2 - Circular moti

### Circular Motion - OCR A2 Physics

Define gravitational field: An area in which objects with a mass experience a force.
Define electric field strength: Force per unit charge.
Define one radian: One radian is the angle made at the centre of a circle, by an arc whose length is equal to the radius of the circle.
Define centripetal force: The force needed to keep an object moving in a circle.
What four things can centripetal force be provided by? Tension, gravitational force, friction and normal reaction.
How is centripetal acceleration described? Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. Velocity is a measure of direction as well as speed, and the direction is constantly changing if an object is moving in a circular shape.
What are the only two forces acting on a conical pendulum? Tension and the objects weight.
What is Newton's law of gravitation? The force of attraction is PROPORTIONAL to the product of the masses, and INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL to the square of their separation.
What is a geo-synchorinesed satellite? Stays above the same point on the Earth. Orbits around the equator, with a period of 1 day. They must also travel from west to east.
Define field: The region in which a force operates.
What does Keplar's 3rd law state? The period of a planet squared = the radius of it's orbit cubed.
What are geo-stationary satellites used for? Telecommunications.
What is a low-level satellite and what is it used for? They orbit the Earth much lower, usually 500km. They are used for weather satellites, spy satellites and GPS.
Define Simple Harmonic Motion: A repeated motion where acceleration is proportional to displacement and in the opposite direction. (Think of a pendulum)
Define displacement: How far and in what direction the point is from it's equilibrium position.
Define amplitude: Maximum displacement of a point from it's equilibrium position.
Define frequency: The number of oscillations passing a point per second
In a SHM oscillator, what remains constant? Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy = Constant
Define Resonance: When the driving frequency is equal to the natural frequency of an oscillator, the amplitude of the oscillations increases.
Define free oscillations: SHM with a constant amplitude and period, with no external influences.
Define Damped oscillations: SHM with a decreasing amplitude and varying period due to external forces.
Define Forced oscillations: SHM with the oscillator being driven externally.
What is an example of resonance? Barton's Pendulum, microwave ovens cause the water molecules in food to resonate.
What are examples of damping? Bridge damping, shock absorbers in cars use critical damping.
Created by: Sparksy