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Chapter 19

Chapter 19: Acids, bases, and salts.

(H3O+) Hydronium ion: The ion that forms when a water molecule gains a hydrogen ion.
Conjugate acid: The ion or molecule formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion.
Conjugate base: The ion or molecule that remains after an acid loses a hydrogen ion.
Conjugate acid-base pair: Consists of two ions or molecules related by the loss or gain of one hydrogen ion.
Amphoteric: A substance that can react as either an acid or a base.
Lewis acid: A substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
Lewis base: A substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
Self-ionization: The reaction in which water molecules produce ions.
Neutral solution: Any aqueous solution in which H+ and OH- are equal.
Ion product constant for water: (Kw)
Acidic solution: A solution in which H+ is greater than 1 x 10^-7 M
Base solution: One in which H+ is less than OH-
Alkaline solutions: Also known as basic solutions.
pH: The pH of a solution is a negative logarithmic hydrogen-ion concentration.
pH less than 7.0: Acidic
pH greater than 7.0 Basic
Two methods that are used to measure pH: Acid-base indicators, or pH meters.
Strong acid: (In general) is completely ionized in an aqueous solution.
Weak acid: Ionized only slightly in an aqueous solution.
Acid dissociation constant (Ka): The ratio of the concentration of the dissociated form of an acid to the concentration of the undissociated form.
Base dissociation constant (Kb): The ratio of the concentration of the conjugate acid times the concentration of the hydroxide ion to the concentration of the base.
Neutralization reaction: The complete reaction of a strong acid and a strong base produces a neutral solution.
Titration: The process of adding a measured amount of a solution of known concentration to the solution of unknown concentrations.
Standard solution: The solution of known concentration.
Equivalence point: The point at which neutralization occurs.
End point: The point at which the indicator changes color.
Salt hydrolysis: The cations and anions of a dissociated salt remove hydrogen ions from, or donate hydrogen ions to, water.
Buffer: A solution in which the pH remains fairly constant when small amounts of acid or base are added.
Buffer capacity: The amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH can occur.
Created by: jmhschemistry