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Chapter 18

Chapter 18: Reactions rates and Equilibrium

How is the rate of a chemical reaction expressed? the reaction rate is usually expressed as the change in the amount of reactant or product per unit time.
Define rate: a measure of how much something changes within a specific amount of time.
Collision Theory: Atoms, ions, and molecules can react to form products when they collide if the particles have enough kinetic energy.
Activation energy: The minimum energy that colliding particles must have in order to react.
Activated complex: An unstable arrangement of atoms that forms for a moment at the peak of the activation-energy barrier.
What four factors influence the rate of a chemical reaction? Temperature, concentration, particle size, and the use of a catalyst.
Inhibitor: A substance that interferes with the action of a catalyst.
First-order reaction: Rate is directly proportionate to the concentration of only one reactant.
Rate Law: An expression for the rate of a reaction in terms of the concentration of reactions.
Specific rate constant: A proportionally constant relating to the concentrations of reactants to the rate of the reaction.
If products form slowly, then... ...the value is small
Elementary reaction: Reactants are converted to products in a single step.
Reaction mechanism: The series of elementary reactions or steps that take place during the course of a complex reaction.
Intermediate: A product of one step in the reaction mechanism and a reactant in the next step.
Most chemical reactions consist of... ...two or more elementary reactions.
Reversible reaction: A reaction in which the conversion of reactants to products and the conversion of products to reactants occur at the same time.
Chemical equilibrium: A state of balance.
Equilibrium position: The relative concentration of the reactants and products at equilibrium mark.
Le Ch√Ętelier's principle: If stress is applied to a system in dynamic equilibrium, the system changes in a way that relieves the stress.
Equilibrium constant: The ration of product concentrations to reactant concentrations at equilibrium.
Relationship between the solubility product constant and the solubility of a compound: The smaller the value of the solubility product constant, the lower the solubility of the compound.
Common ion: An ion that is found in both ionic compounds in a solution.
Common ion effect: The lowering of the solubility of an ionic compound as a result of the addition of a common ion.
Free energy: The energy that is available to do work.
Spontaneous reaction: Occurs naturally and favors the formations of products at the stated conditions.
Non-spontaneous reaction: A chemical reaction that does not favor the chemical formation of products at the stated conditions.
Entropy: A measure of the disorder of a system.
Law of Disorder: States that the natural tendency is for systems to move in randomness.
Created by: jmhschemistry



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