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Science C2 Topic 2

Edexcel GCSE additional science chemistry: ionic compounds

What is an ion? An ion is an atom or a group of atoms that have gained or lost electrons so have a positive or negative charge
How is an ionic bond formed? By the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal causing them both to have full outer shells and be in the most stable position possible
What does a suffix of -ide show about a compound? There is an ionic bond between a metal and a non-metal
What does a suffix of -ate show about a compound? There is an ionic bond between three elements, one of which is oxygen
Use a dot and cross diagram to predict the ionic bonding of sodium chloride NaCl
Predict the ionic bonding of potassium nitrate K3N
Predict the ionic bonding of calcium fluoride CaF2
What are some properties of ionic compounds? * relatively high melting/ boiling temp * crystalline structure at RTP * lattice structure * conduct electricity when molten/ in a solution * many are soluble
What are the solubility rules for: nitrates and sulphates? All nitrates are soluble. All sulphates are soluble apart from calcium, lead and barium.
What are the solubility rules for: bromides and iodides? All bromides and iodides are soluble apart from silver and lead.
What are the solubility rules for: carbonates and hydroxides? All are insoluble apart from ammonium, potassium, sodium
What is a precipitation reaction? Where an insoluble salt is produced in a chemical reaction where the reactants are both water soluble
What is a barium meal and why does it work? It is a meal containing barium sulphate given to X-ray patients so the digestive system shows up on photos - it is opaque to X-rays and is safe to use as the toxic barium salts are insoluble so can’t dissolve into the blood stream
How do you test for cations? Flame tests- potassium goes lilac, calcium goes red, sodium goes yellow and copper goes green
What is spectroscopy? A type of flame test to test for very small amounts of elements- this was how rubidium and caesium were discovered
How do you test for anions? chloride: add dilute nitric acid & silver nitrate solution to chloride salt solution- a white precipitate forms. Sulphate: add dilute hydrochloric acid & barium chloride solution to a sulphate salt solution- white precipitate. Carbonate + acid -> CO2 (g)
Created by: 11043



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