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Science P2 Topic 1

Edexcel GCSE additional science physics: static and current electricity

Describe the structure of an atom Protons and neutrons in the nucleus, electrons orbiting the nucleus in shells
How can an object become electrostatically charged? When two different insulating materials are rubbed together, riction causes electrons to be transferred from one material to the other- the two materials become electrostatically charged
Why must objects be insulators to build up an electrostatic charge? So that the charge isn't conducted away
What is induction? Induction is when an electrostatically charged object is put next to a neutral object, repelling or attracting the electrons in this material so that it is more negatively charged on one side
What are some examples of the dangers of static electricity? 1) shocks from everyday objects e.g. walking along a carpet then touching a metal door handle 2) lightning is caused by a large spark forming between the clouds and ground 3)fuel rubbing against pipe produces sparks that could ignite fuel fumes
Give an example of induction * A charged balloon sticking to a wall * A charged comb picking up small pieces of paper
How can the issue of petrol fumes igniting be avoided? Use a bonding line to earth the charge
What is earthing? Earthing is the process whereby electrons flow in a direction dependent on their charge to remove excess charge
What are some uses of electrostatic charge? 1) Insecticide sprays 2) electrostatic paint spraying 3) finger printers 4) photocopiers
What is electric current? The rate of flow of charged particles
What is a current in a metal? the flow of delocalised electrons
What is the difference between alternating and direct current? Direct: current flows in only one direction (supplied by cells) Alternating: current changes direction many times a second (supplies by generators)
How is the size of the current measured? Using an ammeter, placed in series
Why can the ammeter be put in series? Because current is the same everywhere in the circuit and is conserved at junctions
Created by: 11043