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Unit 2

Chemistry Definitions

TermDefinition
Functional group part of the organic molecule responsible for chemical reactions
Homologous series series of organic compounds with the same functional group
Structual isomer molecules with the same molecular formula but a different structual arrangement of atoms
Stereoisomers compounds with the same structual formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space.
Standard enthalpy change of combustion when one mole of substance reacts completely with oxygen under standard conditons and with all reactants and products being in their standard states
Standard enthalpy change of reaction enthalpy change that takes place with the reaction being in molar quantities under standard conditions and standard states
Standard state physical state of a substance under standard conditions
Heterolytic fission breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms, forming a cation and an anion
Homolytic fission breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atoms
Exothermic refers to a reaction where the enthalpy of the products is smaller than enthalpy of the reactants resulting in heat loss to the surroundings
Endothemrmic refers to a reaction where the enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the reactants resulting in heat being taken in from the surroundings
Dynamic equilibrium the equilibrium that exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is the same as the rate of the reverse reaction
Le Chateliers principle when a system in dynamic equilibrium is subjected to a change, the postion of equilibrium will shift to minimise the change
Boltzmann distribution distribution of energies of molecules at a particular temperature, often shown as a graph
Average bond enthalpy is the average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking by homolytic fission 1 mole of a given bond type in the molecules of a gaseous speacies
Standard enthalpy change of formation one mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states and under standard conditions
Activation energy energy required to start a reaction and used to break bonds
Nucleophile is an atom or a group of atoms that is attracted to an electron deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
Electrophile an atom or group of atoms that is attracted to an electron rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
Reflux the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry
Radical substitution type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces a different atom or group of atoms
Radical a species with an unpaired electron
Mechanism a sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction
Inititation the first step in radical subsitution in which free radicals are generated by ultraviolet radiation
Propagation two repeated steps in radical subsitution that build up the products in a chain reaction
Termination step at the end of a radical subsitution when two radical combine to form a molecule
Aliphatic hydrocarbon hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains
Alicyclic hydrocarbons hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure
Created by: 07blandforderin