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# Semester 1

What's the relationship between exponents & #s <1? #s <1 has a + exponent.
What's the relationship between exponents & #s >1? #s >1 has a - exponent.
How can 1.45*12^5 be expanded into the decimal #? You move the decimal R 5x. 145,000
How can .000560 be written in scientific notation? You move the decimal L 4x. 5.6*10^-4
What #s are always significant? Non0 #s 0s between non0 #s
What #s are never significant? 0s at the beginning of a #.
When are 0s significant? 0s at the end of a @ are only significant if there's a decimal.
How do you +/- significant #s? Answer can have as many decimal places as the least precise # in the problem.
How to */divide significant #s? Answer can only have as many sigfigs as the least amount of sigfigs in the problem.
Bar graphs are used for? Comparing quick & easy data
Pie graphs are used for? Showing percentages
Line graphs are used for? Looking at changes over time
What's accuracy? Correctness
What's precision? Close togetherness
What's dimensional analysis? A mathematical way to show a conversion of #s & units.
What's are the dimensional analysis steps? Read the problem & circle the units & #s Draw T chart & write given info in upper left Drop units Check given equalities Write opposite equality Move #s to T chart Cancel units * #s at top & divide # @ bottom
Physical property: Can be observed without changing the sample's composition
Extensive physical property: Depends upon amount of substance present
Intensive physical property: Independent of amount of substance present
Chemical property: Ability of a substance to combine w/or change into 1+ substances ALWAYS INTENSIVE
Physical changes: Doesn't change its composition
Chemical changes: Process that involves 1+ substances forming a new substance
Solid has: Definite shape Definite volume H density L ke
Liquid has: N definite shape Definite volume M density M ke
Gas has: N definite shape N definite volume L density H ke
What's matter? Anything that has volume & mass
What's a pure substance? A substance that can't be broken down into smaller pieces physically.
What's an element? Smallest form of matter that has specific properties Found on the periodic table
What are compounds? Molecules formed by elements
What's a mixture? A mixture that can be broken down physically
What are solutions? Solude dissolved into a sovent to make a uniform/homogeneous mixture.
What are heterogeneous mixtures? A mixture that's visibly distinguishable.
Protons + Located in nucleus
Neutrons 0 Located in nucleus Mass #-(+)
Electrons - Electron cloud (+)-charge
Atomic # # of protons in an atom
Mass # (+)+(0)
Charge of an Atom (+)-(-)
Isotopic notation Mass # Symbol Charge Atomic #

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