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chem xmas revision

All definitions up to christmas

Cathode Rays streams of negatively charged particles called electrons
Daltons Atomic Theory All matter is made up of very small particles called atoms, All atoms are indivisable- they cannot be broken down into simper particles
An Energy Level is defined as the fixed energy value that an electron in an atom may have
E=Hf E is the definite amount of energy emitted from an atom Hf; Light of defenite frequency or wavelength in emmision spectrum.
An Orbital a region in space within which there is a high probability of finding an electron
An element is a substance that cannot be split up into simpler substances by chemical means
A triad is a group of 3 elements with similar chemical properties in which the atomic weight of the middle one is approximately equal to the average of the other two
Newlands Octaves are groups of elements arranged in order of increasing atomic weight where the first and the eighth element of each group have similar properties
Mendeleevs periodic law When elements are arranged in oreder of increasing atomic weight (relative atomic mass), the properties of the elements vary periodically.
The atomic Number of an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus of that atom
The Modern Periodic Table Is an arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number
What happens when elements are aranged in order of increasing atomic number? The properties of the elements vary periodically
The Mass Number of an element is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Isotopes are atoms of the same element (they have the same atomic number) that have different mass numbers due to the different number of neutrons in the nucleus.
Relative Atomic Mass The average of the mass numbers of the isotopes of an element As they occur naturally Taking their abundances into account Expressed on a scale in which the atoms of the carbon 12 isotope have a mass of exactly 12 units
Hunds Rule of Maximum Multiplicity States that when two or more orbitals of equal energy are available, them electrons occupy them singly before occupying them in pairs
The Aufbau Principle states that when building up the electronic configuration of an atom in its ground state, the electrons occupy the lowest available energy level.
The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no more than 2 electrons may occupy an orbital and they have to have opposite spin.
6X10[23] the amount of particles that one mole of a substance may contain
Mass of one mole of an element= relative atomic mass in grams
a) The relative molecular mass of a compound is the sum of the relative atomic masses of all the atoms in a molecule of that compound.
b)The relative molecular mass of a compound the mass of one molecule of that compound compared with 1/12 of the mass of the carbon 12 isotope
Mass of one mole of a compound = relative molecular mass in grams
Mass(in grams) Relative molecular mass X number of moles
2 H2 + O2 = 2 H2O
Molecular Formula empirical formula X n (n is a whole number)
Arhenius' definition of an acid An acid is a substance that dissociates in water to produce H+ ions
Arrheinius' definition of a base A base is a substance that dissociates in water to produce OH- ions
Bronsted Lowry Definition of a base A base is a proton accepter
Bronsted Lowrey fefinition of an acid An acid is a proton donator
Conjugate Base An acid changes into a conjugate base when it donates a proton
Conjugate Acid A base turns into a conjugate acid when it accepts a proton
Conjugate Acid Base Pair any pair consisting of an acid and a base which differ by one proton
Neutralisation is a reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and water
The concentration of a solution The amount of solute that s dissolved in agiven volume of slution
1 Moler Solution it contains one mole of solute dissolved i one litre of solution
a Titration a laboratory procedure where a measured volume of one solution is added to a known volume of another solution until the reaction is complete
Oxidation When an element loses electrons
Reduction when an element gains electrons
Created by: 100000267478379