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Chemistry - Final


Coulomb's Law like charges repel one another, and opposite charges attract one another
"Rays" stream of negatively charged particles (electrons)
X-Rays sufficiently energetic to penetrate matter and causes certain materials to fluoresce; doesn't have charged particles
Radioactivity spontaneous emission of radiation
Alpha Rays Positively charged
Beta Rays Negatively charged
Gamma Rays high energy; no charge
Atomic Radius generally 100 picometers
Atomic Number the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom in an element; also indicates number of electrons
Mass Number Total number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom
Isotopes atoms that have the same atomic number, but different mass numbers
Atomic Mass the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu)
Average Atomic Mass (atomic weight) determines atomic mass of an element while finding and measuring the mixture of isotopes
Groups/Families Vertical Columns
Periods Horizontal rows
Mole amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities (atoms, particles, etc) as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of Carbon `12
Avogadro's Number the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 (6.022x10^23)
Molar Mass mass in grams of 1 mole of the substance (average atomic mass)
Energy capacity to do work or transfer heat
Kinetic Energy energy that results from motion
Thermal Energy form of kinetic energy associated with random motion of atoms and molecules
Potential Energy energy possessed by an object by virtue of its position
Chemical Energy form of potential energy stored within the structural units of chemical substances
Electrostatic Energy potential energy that results from the interaction of charged particles
Law of Conservation of Energy energy can be neither created or destroyed; when 1 form disappears, the same amount of energy must appear in another form
Electromagnetic spectrum consists of visible light, radio waves, microwaves, infrared, X-rays, and gamma rays
Electromagnetic Wave has both electric field component and magnetic field component.
Interference phenomenon that demonstrates the wave nature of light
Constructive Interference two waves are "in phase" resulting in light lines
Destructive Interference two waves are "out of phase" resulting in dark lines
Blackbody Radiation Electromagnetic radiation emitted when a solid is heated (stove, lightbulb)
Quantum smalles quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorbed in the form of electromagnetic radiation
Photoelectron effect Electrons are ejected from the surface of a metal exposed to light; the light must be of a certain minimum frequency called the threshold frequency
Photon light particles
Emission Spectra the light emitted, either as a continuum or in discrete lines, by a substance in an excited electronic state
Line Spectra The emission of light only at specific wavelengths
Electromagnetic Radiation energy given off when electrons that were promoted to a higher level, returns to the lower levels
Ground State the lowest energy state of an atom (n=1)
Excited State each state where n>1; the higher this state the farther away the electron is from the nucleus
de Broglie Hypothesis an electron in an atom behaves like a "standing wave" ; only certain wavelengths are possible/allowed; the wavelength must fit the circumference of the orbit exactly
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle It is impossible to know simultaneously both the momentum and position of a particle with certainty
The Schrodinger Equation describes behavior and energies of subatomic particles
Electron Densities probability that an electron will be found in a particular region of an atom
Atomic Orbittal wave function of an electron in an atom
Principal Quantum Number (n) designates size of orbital; the larger n is the greater the average distance of an electron in the orbital from the nucleus and therefore the larger the orbital
Angular Momentum Quantum Number (L) describes shape of atomic orbital; depends on value of n
Magnetic Quantum Number (ML) describes the orientation of the orbital in space; depends on value of L; indicates number of orbitals in a subshell
Electron Spin Number (Ms) describes electron that occupies orbital; 2 possible directions)
Electron Configuration how the electrons are distributed in the various atomic orbitals
Pauli Exclusion Principle no two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers (2 electrons can't be in same place at same time)
Ground State one in which all electrons occupy orbitals of the lowest possible energy
Aufbau Principle electrons are added to orbital of lowest energy
Hund's Rule most stable arrangement of atoms is the one with the number of electrons with the same spin that is maximized
Diamagnetic atoms with all paired electrons; the noble gases (repelled by magnets)
Paramagnetic atoms with one or more unpaired electrons (attracted to magnetic field)
Transition Metals either have incompletely filled d subshells or give rise to cations with incompletely filled d subshells
Effective Nuclear Charge the actual magnitude of the positive charge "experienced" by an electron in an atom (shielding)
Metallic Radius half the distance between the nuclei of 2 adjacent, identical metal atoms
Covalent Radius half the distance between, adjacent identical nuclei that are connected by a chemical bond
Ionization Energy minimum energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase (forms cations)
Electron Affinity energy released when an atom in the gas phase accepts an electron (forms anions)
Compound substance composed of 2 or more elements combined in a specific ratio and held together by chemical bonds; cannot be physically separated into a simpler substance
Ionic Compound when a compound consists of anions and cations
Ionic Bonding electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged particles
Chemical Formula part of ionic compound that denotes the constituent elements of a compound and the ratio in which they combine
Lattice structure of an ionic compound that consists of a vast array of interspersed cations and anions; the arrangement is such that the compound is electrically neutral
Lattice Energy amount of energy required to convert a mole of ionic solid to its constituent ions in the gas phase
Lewis Theory of Bonding electrons are shared between elements of similar properties
Covalent Bonding when two atoms share a pair of electrons which makes a covalent bond
Molecule a neutral combination of at least 2 atoms in a specific arrangement held together by chemical bonds
Law of Definite Proportions Different samples of a given compound always contain the same elements in the same mass ratio
Law of Multiple Proportions if 2 elements can combine with the other to form 2 or more different compounds the ratio of masses of one element that combine with the fixed mass of another element can be expressed in small whole numbers.
Diatomic molecule contains 2 atoms
Polyatomic Molecules contains more than 2 atoms
Chemical formula can be used to denote the composition of any substance - ionic or molecular
Molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in a molecule
Allotrope one of 2 or more distinct forms of an element (O, O2, O3)
Structural Formula: Shows not only the elemental composition but also the general arrangement of atoms within a molecule (water - HOH)
Empirical Formula tells us what elements are present in a molecule and in what whole number ratio they are combined
Ionizable Hydrogen Atom one that separates from the molecule upon dissolving and becomes a hydrogen ion (a proton)
Organic Compounds contain carbon and hydrogen
Inorganic Compound does NOT contain carbon
Hydrocarbons those that only contain carbon and hydrogen
Polyatomic Ions ions that consist of 2 or more atoms
Oxoanions polyatomic ions that contain one or more O atoms and one "central atom" of another element
Oxoacids when dissolved in H2O produces H+ ions and corresponding oxoanions
Hydrate compound that has a specific number of water molecules within its solid structure
Molecular Mass sum of atomic masses of the atoms that make up the molecule (multiply atomic masses of each element by the number of atoms present too)
Formula Mass sum of atomic masses of the atoms that make up an ionic compound (multiply atomic masses of each element by the number of atoms present as well)
Percent Composition by Mass a list of the percent by mass of each element in a compound; divide the mass of each element by the molecular/formula mass
Molar Mass mass in grams of one mole of a substance (atomic mass)
Octet Rule atoms will lose, gain, or share an electron in order to achieve noble gas electron configuration
lone pair pairs of unbounded valence electrons
Bond Length distance between nuclei of 2 covalently bonded atoms in a molecule; multiple bonds are SHORTER than single bonds
Bond Strength quantity of energy required to break bond; the shorter the length the stronger the bond
Polar bonds electrons are shared, but not equally
Pure Covalent Bond neutral atoms held together by equally shared atoms
Polar Covalent bond partially charged atoms held by unequally shared electrons
Ionic Bond oppositely charged ions held by electrostatic attraction
Electronegativity ability of an atom to draw shared electrons (in the bond) toward itself; determines electron density
High Electronegativity greater tendency to attract electron density
dipole moment quantative measure of the polarity of a bond; calculated as the product of the charge and the distance between the charges
Percent ionic Character the ratio of observed dipole moment to calculated dipole moment
formal charge can be used to determine most plausible Lewis Structures when more than 1 structure exists for a compound
Resonance Structure one of two or more equally valid Lewis Structures for a single species
The Bigger the change in Electronegativity : the bigger the dipole moment.
Coordinate Covalent bond covalent bond in which one of the atoms donates both electrons
free radicals molecules with an odd number of electrons; exception to the octet rule; adds an electron to central atom
VSEPR Theory a model that accounts for electron pairs in the valence shell of an atom repelling one another
Electron Domain a lone pair OR bond, regardless of whether bond is double, single, or triple
VESPR Theory predicts electron domains will rearrange themselves to be as far apart as possible, minimizing repulsive interactions
Electron domain geometry arrangement of electron domains (lone pairs and bonds) around central atom
molecular geometry arrangement of bonded atoms
Linear Bond Angle 180 degrees
Trigonal Planar Bond Angle 120 degress
Tetrahedral Bond Angle 109 degrees
Trigonal Bipyramidal Bond Angle 120 and 90 degrees
Octahedral Bond Angle 90 degrees
equitorial bonds in trigonal plane
axial bonds on axis perpendicular to trigonal plane
Structural Isomers molecules with same chemical formula but different arrangements of atoms
Bond Energy amount of energy required to break a mole of identical bonds
Valence Bond Theory atoms share electrons when an atomic orbital on one atom overlaps with an atomic orbital on another; each orbital must have an unpaired electron and must have opposite spins; formation of bond results in lower potential energy
hybridization mixing of atomic orbitals
hybrid orbitals neither s or p but have characteristics of both
Chemical reactions neither creates/destorsy atoms, but rearranges them in chemical compounds; involves changes in energy
Combination Reactions a reaction in which 2 or more reactants combine to form a single product
Decomposition Reaction a reaction in which 2 or more products form a single reactant
Combustion Reaction a reaction in which a substance burns in the presence of oxygen
Combustion Analysis experimental determination of empirical formula
Hess's Law change in enthalpy in a chemical reactions is the same, whether it takes place in 1 step or several
Enthalpy of Formation the change in enthalpy to produce one mole of compound from its constituent elements at standard conditions (most stable form is zero)
Bond Enthalpy Gives us a numerical value for the strength of a covalent bond
Created by: ebeneda