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ch 13 vocab

TermDefinition
solvation the clustering of solvent molecules around a solute particle
hydration salvation when the solvent is water
crystallization the process in which a dissolved solute comes out of solution and forms a crystalline solid
saturated a solution in which undissolved solute and dissolved solute are in equilibrium
unsaturated solutions containing less solute than a saturated solution
supersaturated solutions containing more solute than an equivalent saturated solution
miscible liquids that mix in all proportions
immiscible liquids that do not dissolve in one another to a significant extent
Henry's law a law stating that the concentration of a gas in a solution, c sub g, is proportional to the pressure of gas over the solution; C sub g =kP sub g
mass percentage the number of grams of solute in each 100 g of solution
parts per million (ppm) the concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 10^6 (million) grams of solution; equals milligrams of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions
parts per billion (ppb) the concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 10^9 (billion) grams of solution; equals micrograms of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions
molarity the concentration of a solution expressed as moles of solute per liter of solution; abbreviated M
colligative property those properties of a solvent (vapor-pressure lowering, freezing-piont lowering, boiling-piont elevation, osmotic pressure) that depend on the total concentration of solute particles present
Raoult's law a law stating that the partial pressure of a solvent over a solution, P sub A, is given by the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, P little circle sub A, times the mole fraction of a solvent in the solution, X sub A : P sub A =X sub A P little circle subA
ideal solution a solution that ovens Raoult's law
molal boiling-point-elevation constant (K sub b) a constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the increase in boiling point as a function of solution molality : delta T sub b = K sub b m
molal freezing-point-depression constant (K sub f) a constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the decrease in freezing point as a function of solution molality : delta T sub f = K sub f m
osmosis the net movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane toward the solution with greater solute concentration
osmotic pressure the pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis from pure solvent into the solution
colloids (colloidial dispersions) mixtures containing particles larger than normal solutes but small enough to remain suspended in the dispersing medium
Tyndall effect the scattering of a beam of visible light by the particles in a colloidal dispersion
hydrophilic water attracting. the term is often used to describe a type of colloid
hydrophobic water repelling. the term is often used to describe a type of colloid
Created by: agloskowski