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Chapter 10

Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes and Valence Bonding Theory (Test 4)

QuestionAnswer
What is the simplest scientific model for understanding bonding in molecules? Lewis Structures and the Octet Rule
What does VSEPR stand for? valence shell electron pair repulsion
What is the main idea behind VSEPR? Electron pairs are mutually repulsive, and therefore they will automatically adopt a shape allowing them to get as far apart as possible.
How many electron groups does a bond (single, double, triple) count as? 1
How many electron groups does a pair of electrons count as? 1
What is the electron pair geometry for two electron groups? What is the angle? What is the hybridization? linear; 180 degrees; sp
What is the electron pair geometry for three electron groups? What is the angle? What is the hybridization? trigonal planar; 120 degrees; sp^2
What is the electron pair geometry for four electron groups? What is the angle? What is the hybridization? tetrahedral; 109.5 degrees; sp^3
What is the electron pair geometry for five electron groups? What is the angle? What is the hybridization? trigonal bipyramidal; 90 and 120 degrees; sp^3d
What is the electron pair geometry for six electron groups? What is the angle? What is the hybridization? octahedral; 90 degrees; sp^3d^2
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with two bonding pairs of electrons? linear; 180 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with three bonding pairs of electrons? trigonal planar; 120 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with two bonding pairs and one lone pair of electrons? bent; less than 120 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with four bonding pairs of electrons? tetrahedral; 109.5 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with three bonding pairs and one lone pair of electrons? trigonal pyramidal; less than 109.5 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with two bonding pairs and two lone pair of electrons? bent; less than 109.5 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with five bonding pairs of electrons? trigonal bipyramidal; 90 and 120 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with four bonding pairs and one lone pair of electrons? see-saw; less than 90 and less than 120 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with three bonding pairs and two lone pair of electrons? T-shaped; less than 90 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with two bonding pairs and three lone pair of electrons? linear; 180 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with six bonding pairs of electrons? octahedral; 90 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with five bonding pairs and one lone pair of electrons? square pyramidal; less than 90 degrees
What is the molecular geometry and angle of a molecule with four bonding pairs and two lone pair of electrons? square planar; less than 90 degrees
How do the repulsions of lone pairs compare to those of bonded pairs? Lone pairs are more repulsive than bonded pairs.
How do the space requirements of multiple bonds compare to those of single bonds? Multiple bonds usually require more space than single bonds.
What does a polar covalent bond form between? two atoms with different electronegativities
A polar molecule is the result of what? unequal distribution of charge caused by polar bonds and shape
If a molecule is polar, then it has what? a dipole moment
What is the "Vector Addition Approach" to determine if a molecule is polar? A molecule is nonpolar if its bond dipoles are symmetrically oriented such that they effectively cancel.
What is the "Centers of Charge Approach" to determine if a molecule is polar? A molecule is nonpolar if its centers of positive and negative charge coincide.
What are the six perfectly symmetrical shapes? linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral, and square planar
Are hydrocarbons polar or nonpolar? nonpolar
Perfectly symmetric molecules are ...? nonpolar
The main idea behind Valence Bond Theory is what? Bonds form when singly-occupied atomic orbitals "overlap".
Whenever the overlap of simple atomic orbitals does not adequately explain certain bond properties, the concept of hybridization is invoked
hybridization the process in which orbitals are "mixed or combined" resulting in new hybrid orbitals
To do Valence Bond Theory, what do you have to write? electron configuration
"mixing" one s and one p orbital results in 2 sp orbitals
"mixing" one s and two p orbitals results in 3 sp^2 orbitals
"mixing" one s and three p orbitals results in 4 sp^3 orbitals
"mixing" one s, three p, and one d orbital results in 5 sp^3d orbitals
"mixing" one s, three p, and two d orbitals results in 6 sp^3d^2 orbitals
a sigma bond occurs when the electron density is concentrated symmetrically along the inter-nuclear axis
a pi bond occurs when the electron density is concentrated above and below but not on the inter-nuclear axis; when there are parallel p orbitals
a single bond contains one sigma bond
a double bond contains one sigma bond and one pi bond
a triple bond contains one sigma bond and two pi bonds
Which is stronger: a sigma bond or a pi bond? a sigma bond
Why is a sigma bond stronger than a pi bond? better overlap
Created by: 2nenogirl