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Chapter 9

Chemical Bonding I: Lewis Theory (Test 4)

ionic bonding electrostatic attractions between oppositely charged particles; typically between a metal and a nonmetal
covalent bonding involves the sharing of electrons; typically between two nonmetals
metallic bonding consists of metal cations sitting in a "sea" of electrons; typically between two metals
the Octet Rule Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in such a way as to attain a noble gas electron configuration.
ionic bonding 1. involves complete electron transfer 2. infinite crystal lattices 3. solids with high melting points
polar covalent bonding 1. involves unequal sharing of electrons 2. polarity is determined by electronegativity
nonpolar covalent bonding 1. involves equal sharing of electrons 2. gases or liquids at room temperature, or solids with low melting points
lattice energy the energy released when gaseous ions form 1 mole of the ionic crystal
the greater the lattice energy, the higher the melting point and the harder the crystal
Bond breaking is always what? endothermic
Bond forming is always what? exothermic
Coulomb's Law is used to determine what? lattice energy
What is Coulomb's Law? F = k (q1q2)/(r^(2)) where q is the magnitude of the charges and r is distance between centers
Does charge or size impact lattice energy more? charge
What are two ways to measure the strength of a bond? 1. bond length 2. bond energy
The shorter the bond, the stronger the bond
What is the first step in drawing Lewis Structures? Sum the valence electrons from all atoms; take into account any positive or negative charge and add or subtract electrons from the total as necessary.
The central atom is usually either what? 1. listed first 2. the less electronegative atom
Which atoms should you add electrons to first, after connecting the atoms with bonds? the outer atoms
What should you do after all electrons are distributed? Check to see if the central atom has an octet.
formal charges the number of valence electrons on the atom minus the number of electrons assigned to the atom. (The number assigned corresponds to all the unshared electrons plus 1/2 of the shared electrons.)
Which atoms routinely have less than an octet? Be, B, Al.
Which molecules will always violate the octet rule? molecules with an odd number of electrons
Which elements can have more than an octet? 3rd row elements and below
When is resonance used? when one Lewis Structure does not adequately describe the molecule
resonance structure any valid Lewis Structure
resonance hybrid the "true molecule"; a hybrid of all valid Lewis Structures
If you add the formal charges of all atoms in a molecule, you should get the overall charge of the molecule
What three things should you consider when evaluating resonance structures for validity? 1. the less formal charge, the better 2. negative formal charge on the more electronegative element is favorable 3. avoid like charges on adjacent atoms
the more resonance structures that can be formed, the more stable a molecule (due to charge delocalization)
electronegativity the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons
What is the most electronegative element? F (fluorine)
What is the second most electronegative element? O (oxygen)
bond energy the energy required to break 1 mole of a covalent bond
Created by: 2nenogirl