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Chapter 8

Periodic Properties of the Elements (Test 3)

Aufbau procedure "building up"; adding electrons to one subshell until it's full before moving to the next subshell
Pauli Exclusion Principle a max of 2 electrons per orbital as long as they have opposite spin; no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers
Hund's Rule parallel before paired; when filling degenerate orbitals, electrons occupy them singly (one at a time) with parallel spin before pairing up
ground state the lowest energy state
excited state not the lowest energy state
degenerate equal in energy
node a region in space where there is zero probability of finding an electron
shell n (1, 2, 3, ...)
subshell n & l (1s, 2s, 2p, ...)
Where is the "s" block found? the left side
Where is the "p" block found? the right side
Where is the "d" block found? the middle
Where is the "f" block found? the bottom
The s block starts with what? 1s
The p block starts with what? 2p
The d block starts with what? 3d
The f block starts with what? 4f
Special electron configurations occur when what are involved? 1. filled outermost subshells 2. half-filled subshells
Which electrons are removed in cations? the electrons from the outermost shell (which is not necessarily the outermost subshell)
isoelectronic having the same electron configuration
paramagnetic attracted into a magnetic field; having unpaired electrons
diamagnetic slightly repelled by a magnetic field; having all electrons paired
valence electrons outer shell electrons
core electrons inner shell electrons
For abbreviated electron configurations... Put the proceeding noble gas symbol in brackets before writing the valence electrons
shielding the ability of other electrons, especially inner core electrons, to decrease the nuclear attraction for an outer electron
effective nuclear charge the nuclear charge that an electron experiences
atomic size trend increases toward the lower left and decreases toward the upper right
ionization energy trend increases toward the upper right and decreases toward the lower left
What is the relationship in size between a cation and its parent atom? smaller than their parent atom
What is the relationship in size between an anion and its parent atom? larger than their parent atom
In an isoelectronic series, what is the trend in size? size decreases with increasing nuclear charge
ionization energy the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
What are the exceptions in ionization energy? 1. between column 2 and 13 because it is easier to remove the higher energy p electron than the lower energy s electron. 2. between column 15 and 16 because column 15 has a half-filled subshell
When does a "huge jump" occur in ionization energies? when an inner core electron is removed
electron affinity the energy change (delta E) the occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom; some negative and some positive
The more electronegative the element, the more the atom "wants" the electron
What groups have positive or near-positive electron affinities? Groups 2 and 18
What group has the most negative/most exothermic electron affinities? Group 17 (halogens)
What do you use to make individual predictions? electron configuration and nuclear charge
Created by: 2nenogirl