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Chapter 4 (Part 2)

Aqueous Reactions (Test 2)

QuestionAnswer
What is molarity used to describe? solution concentration
What is the equation for molarity? Molarity = (# mol solute/# L solution)
What does molarity relate? moles and liters
You can always replace "M" with what? (mol/L)
What is the equation for solution by dilution? M1V1=M2V2
solution a homogeneous mixture containing only one phase
solvent the substance dissolving
solute the substance being dissolved
aqueous solution a solution in which the solvent is water
Substances that do what in aqueous solutions will conduct electricity? form ions
When ionic compounds dissolve in water, what do they do? dissociate into ions
Some molecular compounds form ions when they dissolve in water, and this is called what? ionization
electric current flow of charge
electrolyte a substance that conducts an electric current when dissolved in water. Thus, it is a substance that forms ions in aqueous solutions.
Strong electrolytes (substances that completely dissociate into ions in aqueous solution) include: strong acids, strong bases, and soluble salts
Weak electrolytes (substances that partially ionize in aqueous solution) include: weak acids and weak bases
Nonelectrolytes (substances that are soluble in water, but which do not form ions in aqueous solution) include: alcohols and sugars
What are the seven strong acids? HCl, HBr, HI, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4, HClO3
What are the eight strong bases? LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
salt any ionic compound whose cation is not hydrogen and whose anion is not hydroxide; the product of an acid-base reaction
precipitation reaction two soluble ionic compounds react to form an insoluble product; driving force is the formation of an insoluble product; a double displacement reaction
What are the three steps in writing a net ionic equation? 1. Write the molecular equation, where every compound is written in its neutral form. 2. Ask: "Is it a strong electrolyte?". If yes, write it as its ions, moving subscripts into coefficients. If no, keep it in its neutral form. 3. Remove spectator ions.
Salts whose cation is from Group 1 are ...? always soluble
Salts whose cation is NH4^+ are ...? always soluble
Salts whose anion is NO3^- are ...? always soluble
Salts whose anion is ClO4^- are ...? always soluble
Salts whose anion is C2H3O2^- are ...? always soluble
Salts whose anion is Cl^-, Br^-, or I^- are ...? usually soluble except if the cation is Ag^+, Pb^2+, Hg2^2+, or Cu^+
Salts whose anion is SO4^2- are ...? usually soluble except if the cation is Ag^+, Pb^2+, Ca^2+, Sr^2+, or Ba^2+
Metal hydroxides are ...? usually insoluble except if they are strong bases
Salts whose anion is CO3^2- are ...? usually insoluble except if the cation is from Group 1 or NH4^+
Salts whose anion is PO4^3- are ...? usually insoluble except if the cation is from Group 1 or NH4^+
Salts whose anion is S^2- are ...? usually insoluble except if the cation is from Group 1, 2, or NH4^+
acid-base reaction a double displacement reaction involving an acid and a base; forms a salt and water.
acid a substance that produces H^+ ions in aqueous solution
base a substance that produces OH^- ions in aqueous solution
Strong acids and bases do what in aqueous solution? completely ionize
Weak acids and bases do what in aqueous solution? partially ionize
The net ionic equation of a strong acid and a strong base contains what? hydrogen, oxygen, and water
The net ionic equation of a strong acid and a weak base or a strong base and a weak acid contains what? a weak acid or base and water along with the dissociating ions from the strong acid or base
Precipitation and acid-base are both examples of what? metathesis or double displacement reactions
Created by: 2nenogirl