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Chapter 2

Atoms and Elements (Test 1)

scientific model an oversimplified conceptual picture to explain some aspect of nature
John Dalton developed the atomic theory; "billiard ball" model
J.J. Thomson cathode ray tube experiment; determined the charge to mass ratio of electrons; "plum pudding" model
Robert Millikan oil drop experiment; determined the charge of an electron (and thus the mass of an electron)
Ernest Rutherford gold foil experiment; showed that most of the mass of an atom lies in the nucleus (which is extremely tiny); destroyed the "plum pudding" model by establishing the "nuclear" model
James Chadwick discovered the neutron
What are some characteristics of protons? mass of about 1 amu; middle in mass between the other two subatomic particles; charge of +1
What are some characteristics of neutrons? mass of about 1 amu; largest of the subatomic particles; charge of 0
What are some characteristics of electrons? mass of about one two-thousandth amu; smallest of the subatomic particles; charge of -1
atom a neutral particle
ion a charged particle
cation a positively charged particle
anion a negatively charged particle
atomic number the number of protons; this defines the element
mass number the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
isotopes atoms of the same element that differ from each other only by the number of neutrons. That is, they have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
atomic weight a weighted average of isotopic masses
The mass of one carbon-12 atom is exactly how many atomic mass units? 12 amu
Elements in a given what have similar chemical and physical properties? vertical column or group
group vertical columns; sometimes called "families"
period horizontal rows
metals found on the left side of the periodic table; good conductors of heat and electricity; ductile, malleable, lustrous, tend to lose electrons and become cations
metalloids or semi-metals found on the stair step of the periodic table; properties of both metals and nonmetals
nonmetals found on the right side of the periodic table; insulators, brittle, dull, tend to gain electrons and become anions
Group 1 alkali metals
Group 2 alkaline earth metals
Group 16 chalcogens, "the oxygen family"
Group 17 halogens; very reactive
Group 18 noble gases; mostly nonreactive
main group elements groups: 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18
transition metals groups: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
inner transition metals lanthanides and actinides
Created by: 2nenogirl