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Chapter 1

Chemistry: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving (Test 1)

accuracy how closely a measurement agrees with the "true" or accepted value
precision how closely individual measurements agree with each other
What are some examples of exact numbers? counted numbers and some conversion factors
What are significant figures used to indicate? the degree of uncertainty present in measured values; every certain digit plus the first uncertain digit
Significant or Not: all non-zero digits significant
Significant or Not: a zero between other significant figures significant
Significant or Not: leading zeros not significant
Significant or Not: final zeros in a number with a decimal point significant
Significant or Not: final zeros in a number without a decimal point ambiguous
Scientific notation is often required to do what? to remove ambiguity
In addition and subtraction, what question must be asked to determine the significant figures that the answer should have? How precise is the least precise measurement? (decimal places)
In multiplication and division, what question must be asked to determine the significant figures that the answer should have? How many significant figures does the measurement with the least amount of significant figures have? (significant figures)
What must be done for calculations involving multiple steps? Perform the calculation one step at a time, applying the appropriate rule at each step.
What should you do for scientific notation? You should determine the preciseness of each digit in all measurements, and use the same amount of preciseness as the least precise measurement.
What are the three steps to a dimensional analysis problem? 1. Write down what you want to know. 2. Start with the given measured quantity. 3. Apply conversion factors to cancel unwanted units.
Exactly how many centimeters is equivalent to one inch? 2.54cm = 1 in.
How many pounds is equivalent to one kilogram? ~2.205 lbs. = 1kg
How many milliliters is equivalent to one square centimeter? 1 mL = 1 cm^3
How many inches are in one foot? 12 in. = 1 ft.
What is the equation for density? d=m/V
What are the metric prefixes? peta (10^15), tera (10^12, giga (10^9), mega (10^6), kilo (10^3), deci (10^-1), centi (10^-2), milli (10^-3), micro (10^-6), nano (10^-9), pico (10^-12), femto (10^-15)
What are the standard SI units? length - meter, mass - kilogram, time - second, temperature - Kelvin, amount of substance - mole, electric current - ampere, luminous intensity - candela.
How do you convert Celsius to Kelvin? K = C + 273.15
How do you convert Kelvin to Celsius? C = K - 273.15
Created by: 2nenogirl