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# Chapter 1

### Chemistry: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving (Test 1)

Question | Answer |
---|---|

accuracy | how closely a measurement agrees with the "true" or accepted value |

precision | how closely individual measurements agree with each other |

What are some examples of exact numbers? | counted numbers and some conversion factors |

What are significant figures used to indicate? | the degree of uncertainty present in measured values; every certain digit plus the first uncertain digit |

Significant or Not: all non-zero digits | significant |

Significant or Not: a zero between other significant figures | significant |

Significant or Not: leading zeros | not significant |

Significant or Not: final zeros in a number with a decimal point | significant |

Significant or Not: final zeros in a number without a decimal point | ambiguous |

Scientific notation is often required to do what? | to remove ambiguity |

In addition and subtraction, what question must be asked to determine the significant figures that the answer should have? | How precise is the least precise measurement? (decimal places) |

In multiplication and division, what question must be asked to determine the significant figures that the answer should have? | How many significant figures does the measurement with the least amount of significant figures have? (significant figures) |

What must be done for calculations involving multiple steps? | Perform the calculation one step at a time, applying the appropriate rule at each step. |

What should you do for scientific notation? | You should determine the preciseness of each digit in all measurements, and use the same amount of preciseness as the least precise measurement. |

What are the three steps to a dimensional analysis problem? | 1. Write down what you want to know. 2. Start with the given measured quantity. 3. Apply conversion factors to cancel unwanted units. |

Exactly how many centimeters is equivalent to one inch? | 2.54cm = 1 in. |

How many pounds is equivalent to one kilogram? | ~2.205 lbs. = 1kg |

How many milliliters is equivalent to one square centimeter? | 1 mL = 1 cm^3 |

How many inches are in one foot? | 12 in. = 1 ft. |

What is the equation for density? | d=m/V |

What are the metric prefixes? | peta (10^15), tera (10^12, giga (10^9), mega (10^6), kilo (10^3), deci (10^-1), centi (10^-2), milli (10^-3), micro (10^-6), nano (10^-9), pico (10^-12), femto (10^-15) |

What are the standard SI units? | length - meter, mass - kilogram, time - second, temperature - Kelvin, amount of substance - mole, electric current - ampere, luminous intensity - candela. |

How do you convert Celsius to Kelvin? | K = C + 273.15 |

How do you convert Kelvin to Celsius? | C = K - 273.15 |