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Chapter 10

Processing Integrity and Availability

Data Entry Checks (Input Controls) Field Check, Sign Check, Limit Check, Range Check, Size check, Completeness check, Validity check, Reasonableness check, Check digit verification, Prompting, Close-loop verification
Field check Characters in a field are the proper type. E.g. Text, integer, date, etc.
Sign check Proper arithmetic sign
Limit check Input checked against fixed value. Ex. Proper payroll hours worked must be equal to 40 hours
Range check Input within low/high range value.
Size check Input fit within field
Completeness check Has all required data been entered. Ex. shipping address been entered
Validity check Input compared with master data to confirm existence. Ex. Sales order with product ID # matches DB product ID #
Reasonableness check Logical comparisons. Ex. OT hours should be 0 if not worked over 40 hours.
Check digit verification computed from input value to catch typo errors
Prompting Input requested by system
Close-loop verification Uses input data to retrieve and display related data. Ex A/C # entered and system displays account name.
Batch Input Controls Batch Processing: Input multiple source docs at once in a group Batch Totals: Compare input totals to output totals *Financial - Sums a field that contains monetary values *Hash - sums nonfinancial numeric fields *Record count - # of records
Processing Controls Data Matching, File Labels, Batch total recalculation, Cross-footing and zero-balance tests, Write protection, Concurrent update
Form design (input controls) *All forms should be sequentially numbered to verify missing docs *Use of turnaround docs to eliminate input errors
Batch Processing Data Entry Controls (additional) Sequence check, Error log, Batch totals
Online Data Entry Controls Auto entry, Prompting, Pre-formatting, Closed-loop verification, Transaction logs, Error messages
Output Controls User review of output, Clean desk policy
Preventive Maintenance (Availability) Clean disk drives, Proper storage of hardware and software
Redundant Components (Availability) *Provides fault tolerance, which enables the system to continue functioning despite failure of a component. EX Dual processors, RAIDs - redundant array of inexpensive disks
Input Controls Form design, cancellation and storage of docs, authorization and segregation of duties, visual scanning, data entry
Output Controls Reviews and reconciliation, Encryption and access controls, message acknowledgement techniques
Parity Checking (Output > Data Transmission Control) A control that counts the number of odd or even bits in order to verify that all data were transmitted correctly
Checksum (Output > Data Transmission Control) Sending device calculates a hash of the file
Business Continuity Plan A plan that describes how to resume business ops after a major calamity. Minimize disruption and downtime. Establish alternative means of processing information.
Incremental Daily backup Copying only the data items that have changed since the last partial backup; Faster to perform than differential
Differential backup Copies all changes made since the last full backup; Restoration is simpler under this method.
Archive A file used to store info fo long periods of time
Change Control A plan to ensure that modifications to an IS do not reduce its security
Cold Site A DRP plan that contracts the use of an alternate site that is prewired for Internet but has not computing or network equipment.
Zero-balance test A processing control that involves use of an account that should not have a balance after processing
Disaster Recovery Plan Outlines the procedures to restore an org's IT function in the event of a disaster; Periodic testing and revision are the most important components
Hot Site Facility used that is prewired for internet, telephone, and contains all necessary equipment
Created by: ronniemad
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