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ch11 vocab

intermolecular forces the short-range attractive forces operating between the particles that make up the units of a liquid or solid substance. These same forces also cause gases to liquefy or solidify at low temperatures and high pressures
dipole-dipole forces the force that exists because of the interactions of dipoles on polar molecules in close contact
London dispersion forces intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between induced dipoles
hydrogen bonding bonding that results from intermolecular attractions between molecules containing hydrogen bonded to an electronegative element NOF
Ion-dipole force the force that exists between an ion and a neutral polar molecule that possesses a permanent dipole moment
polarizability the ease with which the electron cloud of anatomy or a molecule is distorted by an outside influence, thereby inducing a dipole moment
viscosity a measure of the resistance of fluids to flow
surface tension the intermolecular, cohesive attraction that causes a liquid to minimize its surface area
capillary action the process by which a liquid rises in a tube because of a combination of adhesion to the walls of the tube and cohesion between liquid particles
phase change the conversion of a substance from one stage of matter to another. the phase changes we consider are melting and freezing, sublimation and disposition, and vaporization and condensation.
heat of fusion the enthalpy change, delta H, for melting a solid
heat of sublimation the enthalpy change, delta H, for vaporization of a solid
heat of vaporization the enthalpy change, delta H, for vaporization of a liquid
critical temperature the highest temperature at which it is possible to convert the gaseous form of a substance to a liquid. the critical temperature increases with an increase in the magnitude of intermolecular forces
critical pressure the pressure at which a gas at its critical temperature is converted to a liquid state
vapor pressure the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid or solid phase
dynamic equilibrium a state of balance in which opposing processes occur at the same rate
volatile tending to evaporate readily
normal boiling point the boiling point at 1 atm pressure
phase diagram a graphic representation of the equilibria among the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance as a function of temperature and pressure
normal melting point the melting point at 1 atm pressure
triple point the temperature at which solid, liquid, and gas phases coexist in equilibrium
crystalline solid (crystal) a solid whose internal arrangement of atom, molecules, or ions shows a regular repetition in any direction through the solid
amorphous solid a solid whose molecular arrangement lacks a regular, long-range pattern
unit cell the smallest portion of a crystal that reproduces the structure of the entire crystal when repeated in different directions in space. it is the repeating hit of building block of the crystal lattice
crystal lattice an imaginary network of points on which the repeating unit of the structure of a solid may be imagined to be laid down so that the structure of the crystal is obtained. each point represents an identical environment in the crystal
primitive cubic cell a cubic unit cell in which the lattice points are at the corners only
body-centered cubic cell a cubic unit cell in which the lattice points occur at the corners and at the center
face-centered cubic cell a cubic unit cell that has lattice points at each corner as well as at the center of each face
cubic close packing a close-packing arrangement in which the atoms of the third layer of a solid are not directly over those in the first layer
hexagonal close packing a close-packing arrangement in which the atoms of the third layer of a solid lie directly over those in the first layer
coordination number the number of adjacent atoms to which an atom is directly bonded. in a complex the coordination number of the metal ion is the number of donor atoms to which it is bonded
molecular solids solids that are composed of molecules
covalent-network solids solids in which the units that make up the three-dimensional network are joined by covalent bonds
ionic solids solids that are composed of ions
metallic solids solids that are composed of metal atoms
Created by: agloskowski