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Core Chemistry

Atmosphere Composition Today ? 78% Nitrogen , 21% Oxygen , 1% Noble Gasses and 0.03% CO2
4 Million Years Ago the main gas in the atmosphere was ... Co2
4 Million Years ago there was little .... In the atmosphere Oxygen
4 Million Years Ago the atmosphere was made up of mainly the gasses .... Volcanic activity gave out
Then .... in the atmosphere condensed forming oceans Water Vapour
SO plants grew which lead to ..... and reduction in .... levels SO plants grew which lead to photosynthesis and reduction in Co2 levels
And Co2 dissolved in to the .... Oceans
What causes rising Co2 in Atmosphere .... Burning of fossil fuels , Volcanic activity , Live stock farming.
Evidence for part atmosphere build up ? Air Bubbles in Ice Cores
Sedimentary Rock how is it formed? Tiny sediments flow down stream, they are disposed at the bottom of the river bed , over time the layers build up and over millions of years heat and pressure act forming a rock.
Igneous Rock how is it formed ? Lava cools forming rock.
Metamorphic how formed ? Other rocks are treated with heat and pressure changing the characteristics.
Lime stone uses ? Building material , mixed with powdered clay to make cement , mix cement with sand and water and gravel to make concrete, heat with sand and NaCo3 to make glass. Used as scrubber in power station, neutralises sulphur.
Lime stone obtained by ? consider pros and cons. Quarrying.
Lime stone thermal decomposition (CaCo3) makes ... CaO (calcium oxide) + Co2
Neutralisation word equation : acid + base -> salt + water
Indigestion tablets work by ..... stomach acid Indigestion tablets work by neutralising stomach acid
Neutralisation of metal carbonates produce : salt + water + Co2
Electrolysis is ... decomposition of a compound using an electrical (d.c) current.
Test for chlorine ... Bleaches litmus paper
Metals are found in .... Ores
The process of splitting metals from their oxides is called ... Extraction
Very reactive metals from aluminium to potassium on the reactivity series are extracted using .... Electrolysis , this can be expensive.
Metals less reactive than carbon are extracted by ... Reduction (heating with carbon).
Metals like Gold don't need extracting as .. Highly unreactive so found pure.
The more reactive the metal the easier they ... and rust. corrode
To make metals stronger we use a process called .... alloying
Explain the alloying process. Iron has all the same sized particles, meaning easily slide over each other . Getting a metal with different sized partials like Steel and adding this in to the structure will ruin the regular arrangement meaning the partials can’t slide over each other.
Fuels are also called ........ this means they are made of mainly ...... & ..... Fuels are also called hydrocarbons this means they are made of mainly hydrogen & carbon
Most hydrocarbons come from a thick black oil called ... Crude oil
They are split by .... Fractional distillation
Complete combustion creates ... Co2 + H2O
Incomplete combustion creates .... Carbon Monoxide + Co2 + Soot (carbon) + H2O
Risks of carbon monoxide ? Binds to haemoglobin (in red blood cells) and prevents oxygen being carried round the body leading to suffocation.
When choosing fuel consider ? 1) Ease of ignition 2) Energy Given off 3) By-products 4) Ease of Storage & Transport
Acid Rain is caused by ..... being released into atmosphere . Have a think about what this dose to the environment. Sulphur dioxide
Power stations release sulphur dioxide this is prevented by using a .... such as Calcium Carbonate. Scrubber
Carbon dioxide is a ..... gas . This traps .... in the atmosphere. Humans also affect Co2 Levels consider . Green House , Heat
Explain how bio gas is made. Animals waste is placed in a biogas generator which creates methane.
Biofuels like ethanol are ....and produce little or no ... . renewable , Green house Gasses.
ALKANES have .... Bonds . Single
ALKENES have ... bonds. Double
..... Turn Bromine Water Colourless. Alkenes
Cracking is a form of thermal decomposition which ... splits a long chain of hydrocarbons making useful alkanes and alkenes.
In the process of cracking heat with a ... catalyst like porcelain chips.
Alkenes can be used to make .... Polymers.
Explain Polymerisation. Take a monomer (1 alkene) e.g Ethene . Break the Double Bond Add other monomers on the end.
Polymerisations bi products are NOT ... Bio degradable.
Created by: Mitchglad