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Chapter 13


Carbohydrate Contains carbohydrate, hydrogen and oxygen. Also called saccharide. Very water soluble. Names usually end with "-ose"
Chiral Monosaccharide (one sugar), carbohydrate. Furthest from carbonyl determines isomer. D = -OH on right, L = -OH on left
Monosaccharide Simplest form of carbohydrate. C6H12O6 = glucose. Can not be hydrolyzed - broken down any further. Most exist as a D-isomer. They are a reducing sugar.
Disaccharide Two monosaccharides. Can be hydrolyzed (add water) to be broken down into two monosaccharides.
Polysaccharides Many monosaccharides. Can be hydrolyzed into many monosaccharides.
Polyhydroxyaldehyde Aldose -COOH
Polyhydroxyketone Ketose - -CO
Pentose Five carbon monosaccharide
Hexose Six carbon monosaccharide
Aldohexose Aldo - aldehyde, hex - six, ose - glucose
Ribose Aldopentose in RNA
Glucose Aldohexose, called dextrose or blood sugar
Galactose Aldohexose found in disaccharide lactose
Fructose Ketohexose, fruit sugar, sweetest tasting sugar
Hyperglycemic over/above normal glucose level
Hypoglycemic under/below normal glucose level
Normal glucose 70-90 mg/dL
Alpha glucose OH is below
Beta glucose OH is above
Sugar alcohol Result when an aldehyde or ketone carbonyl is reduced to a hydroxyl. "-itol" suffix ex: sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol
Glycosidic bond Bond that connects two monosaccharides -----O----
Glycosides Monosaccharides react with alcohols
Maltose Malt sugar obtained from starch, contains an alpha glycosidic bond (glucose + glucose). A reducing sugar
Lactose Milk sugar, contains a beta glycosidic bond (glucose + galactose) A reducing sugar
Sucrose Table sugar found in sugar cane and beets. Contains a glycosidic bond (glucose + fructose)
Artificial sweeteners Much sweeter than sugars, most are NOT carbohydrates, no calories,
Blood type Determined by three or four monosaccharides attached to RBC. Universal receiver - AB Universal donor - O
Polysaccharides Hydrolyze to give MANY monosaccharides. Starch, glycogen and cellulose are all polymers of D-glucose.
Chitin A polysaccharide found in nature not used as a food source. Insect shell, lobster, crab and clam shells. Can not be digested.
Starch (alpha-1, 4-glycosidic bond) Glucose storage in plants such as fruits, vegetable skin, rice and beans) Ex: Amylose - straight chain polymer Amylopectin - branched chain polysaccharide
Glycogen (alpha-1, 4-glycosidic bond) Glucose storage in animals, stored in liver and muscles
Cellulose (Beta-1,4-glycosidic bond) Major structural component of plants. Humans lack enzymes to hydrolyze Beta-glycosidic bond. Harder for us to digest. Source is dietary fiber.
Created by: daydreamer67