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Chapter 12

CHEM 120 James Madison University

If two substances mix, what is the solution considered? Miscible
If two substances cannot mix, what is that considered? Immiscible
What happens when an ionic compound is placed in water? Dipoles of the water molecules attract the ions and pull them apart.
What do ionic compounds consist of? Alternating + and - ions in a 3D crystal lattice
Ion-dipole forces Interactions between ions and dipoles of a polar molecule (like H2O)
What kind of molecular compounds form ions when dissolved in water? Strong acids
Do polar compounds dissolve in water? Yes, because of the dipole dipole attractions with water.
Do nonpolar compounds dissolve in water? They dissolve poorly (because like dissolves like)
Saturated Maximum amount of solute dissolved in solution
Unsaturated Less than maximum amount of solid is dissolved
Supersaturated Unstable- more than maximum dissolved, can form precipitate
Dilute Contains small amount of solute
Concentrated Large amount of solute
Concentration Amount of solute present in a given amount of solvent or solution
Solubility of solids/liquids (increases/decreases) with increasing temperature, and (increases/decreases) with increasing pressure? Increases, unaffected
Solubility of gases (increases/decreases) with increasing temperature, and (increases/decreases) with increasing pressure? Decreases, increases
Conductor Allows electricity to move through it (like metals)
Insulator Does not conduct electricity (wood, glass)
Electrolyte A compound whose aqueous solution will conduct electricity (form ions)
What forms ions in water? Ionic compounds and strong acids
Strong electrolyte- Conductivity? Action when dissolved? Example? Good conductivity, splits into all ions, ex- strong acids
Weak electrolyte- Conductivity? Action when dissolved? Example? Limited conductivity, splits into some ions, ex- weak acids and bases
Nonelectrolyte- Conductivity? Action when dissolved? Example? No conductivity, does not split into ions, ex- molecular compounds (sugar, alcohol, glycerol)
Do weak acids dissolve in water? Yes, completely
Colligative property Property of a substance that depends on how much of a solute is added to it, not on what solute is added.
Vapor pressure How quickly a liquid tends to evaporate
Adding a solute (increase/decreases) vapor pressure. Increases
Adding a solute (increases/decreases) boiling point. Increases
Adding a solute (increases/decreases) freezing point. Decreases
Osmotic pressure Water flows from solvent side to the solution side
Osmotic pressure (increases/decreases) with more solute in the solution? Increases
Created by: 757405106