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# Exam 2017 Fall Semes

### Exam 2017 Math Models Vocabulary

Term | Definition |
---|---|

mathematical modeling | The process of finding formulas to describe real-world phenomena. |

deductive reasoning | The process of proving a specific conclusion from one or more general statements |

cardinal number | The number of elements in a set |

finite set | a set for which the cardinal number is a natural number |

inductive reasoning | The process of arriving at a general conclusion based on observations of specific examples |

equal sets | occurs when 2 sets contain exactly the same elements |

Greatest Common Divisor | the largest number that divides evenly into two or more numbers |

Least Common Multiple | the smallest number that is a common multiple of two or more numbers |

absolute value | the distance a number is from zero, always a nonnegative value |

prime numbers | natural numbers greater than one whose only factors are one and the number itself |

whole numbers | {0, 1, 2, 3, 4…} |

rational numbers | a number that can be written in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b does not equal 0 |

terminating decimal | A decimal number that ends |

equivalent sets | occurs when there are two sets A and B for which n(A)=n(B) |

radicand | the number or expression contained in a radical sign |

irrational number | a nonrepeating or nonterminating decimal |

principle square root | the positive square root of a number |

rationalize the denominator | the process of rewriting a radical expression to remove the square root from the denominator |

Additive inverse | numbers that have the same absolute value but different signs |

natural numbers | {1, 2, 3, 4…} |

composite number | natural number greater than 1 that is divisible by a number other than 1 and itself |

prime factorization | expressing a composite number as the product of prime numbers |

integers | whole numbers and their opposites |

Density of Rational Numbers | between any two rational numbers there exist infinitely many rational numbers |

binomial | an expression containing two terms each having natural number exponents |

constant | a term containing a single value, no variable |

factors | the numbers and variables multiplied to obtain a product |

universal set | the set that contains all elements under discussion |

algebraic expression | an expression containing numbers and variables along with the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division |

solution set | the set of all solutions of an equation or inequality |

term | an expression containing only factors, no sums or differences |

trinomial | an expression containing three terms each having natural number exponents |

ratio | comparing two quantities by division |

numerical coefficient | the numerical factor in a term |

like terms | terms containing exactly the same variables and exponents of those variables |

Complement of a set | the elements in the universal set that are not in the given set |

infinite set | a set for which there is no cardinal number |

closure property | property by which an answer obtained by performing an operation on any two members of a set is also in that set |

disjoint sets | Two or more sets that have no elements in common |

common ratio | the number, r, that is the result of dividing a term in a geometric sequence by the preceding term |

binomial | an expression containing two terms each having natural number exponents |

proportion | two equal ratios |

common difference | the number, d, that is the result of subtracting a term in an arithmetic sequence from the preceding term |

characteristic | the power of ten in scientific notation |

mantissa | The value in scientific notation that is ≥1 and < 10 |

intersection of sets | the set of elements in both specified sets |

term | an expression containing only factors, no sums or or differences |

Commutative Property | the property that allows the order of numbers in mult. or addition to change without changing the result |

Associative Property | the property that allows the grouping of numbers in mult. and addition to change without changing the result |

equation | two expressions joined by an equal sign |

radicand | the number or expression in the radical sign |

union of sets | the set of elements in either if the specif |

arithmetic sequence | sequence in which each term after the first differs from the first by a constant amount |

geometric sequence | sequence in which each term after the first is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by a nonzero constant |

zero exponent rule | any value raised to the zero power equals 1 |

set | a collection of items that is well-defined |

estimation | the process of arriving at an approximate answer to a question |

set builder notation | a set identified using the symbols {x|x...} |

additive identity | Adding 0 to a number does not change its value; a + 0 = a |

subset | a set all of whose elements are contained in another set |