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Exam 2017 Fall Semes

Exam 2017 Math Models Vocabulary

TermDefinition
mathematical modeling The process of finding formulas to describe real-world phenomena.
deductive reasoning The process of proving a specific conclusion from one or more general statements
cardinal number The number of elements in a set
finite set a set for which the cardinal number is a natural number
inductive reasoning The process of arriving at a general conclusion based on observations of specific examples
equal sets occurs when 2 sets contain exactly the same elements
Greatest Common Divisor the largest number that divides evenly into two or more numbers
Least Common Multiple the smallest number that is a common multiple of two or more numbers
absolute value the distance a number is from zero, always a nonnegative value
prime numbers natural numbers greater than one whose only factors are one and the number itself
whole numbers {0, 1, 2, 3, 4…}
rational numbers a number that can be written in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b does not equal 0
terminating decimal A decimal number that ends
equivalent sets occurs when there are two sets A and B for which n(A)=n(B)
radicand the number or expression contained in a radical sign
irrational number a nonrepeating or nonterminating decimal
principle square root the positive square root of a number
rationalize the denominator the process of rewriting a radical expression to remove the square root from the denominator
Additive inverse numbers that have the same absolute value but different signs
natural numbers {1, 2, 3, 4…}
composite number natural number greater than 1 that is divisible by a number other than 1 and itself
prime factorization expressing a composite number as the product of prime numbers
integers whole numbers and their opposites
Density of Rational Numbers between any two rational numbers there exist infinitely many rational numbers
binomial an expression containing two terms each having natural number exponents
constant a term containing a single value, no variable
factors the numbers and variables multiplied to obtain a product
universal set the set that contains all elements under discussion
algebraic expression an expression containing numbers and variables along with the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
solution set the set of all solutions of an equation or inequality
term an expression containing only factors, no sums or differences
trinomial an expression containing three terms each having natural number exponents
ratio comparing two quantities by division
numerical coefficient the numerical factor in a term
like terms terms containing exactly the same variables and exponents of those variables
Complement of a set the elements in the universal set that are not in the given set
infinite set a set for which there is no cardinal number
closure property property by which an answer obtained by performing an operation on any two members of a set is also in that set
disjoint sets Two or more sets that have no elements in common
common ratio the number, r, that is the result of dividing a term in a geometric sequence by the preceding term
binomial an expression containing two terms each having natural number exponents
proportion two equal ratios
common difference the number, d, that is the result of subtracting a term in an arithmetic sequence from the preceding term
characteristic the power of ten in scientific notation
mantissa The value in scientific notation that is ≥1 and < 10
intersection of sets the set of elements in both specified sets
term an expression containing only factors, no sums or or differences
Commutative Property the property that allows the order of numbers in mult. or addition to change without changing the result
Associative Property the property that allows the grouping of numbers in mult. and addition to change without changing the result
equation two expressions joined by an equal sign
radicand the number or expression in the radical sign
union of sets the set of elements in either if the specif
arithmetic sequence sequence in which each term after the first differs from the first by a constant amount
geometric sequence sequence in which each term after the first is obtained by multiplying the preceding term by a nonzero constant
zero exponent rule any value raised to the zero power equals 1
set a collection of items that is well-defined
estimation the process of arriving at an approximate answer to a question
set builder notation a set identified using the symbols {x|x...}
additive identity Adding 0 to a number does not change its value; a + 0 = a
subset a set all of whose elements are contained in another set
Created by: mcchesney