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Carb. Metab.

Chemistry, Carbohydrate Metabolism

Glycogen Storage form of glucose
Glycogenesis Formation of Glycogen from Glucose
Glycogenolysis Breakdown of Glycogen into glucose
Glycolysis Glucose changed to get energy
Gluconeogenesis Glucose from fat or protein
Where is glycogen made and stored? made in the liver and the muscle.
Where is insulin made? Made in the beta cells of the Islet of Langerhams in the pancreas.
What does insulin do? insulin stimulates the transport of glucose through cell memberane, must be present for glucose to enter cells.
How does insulin affect the blood glucose level? It lowers the blood glucose.
Where is Glucagon made? Hormone. made in the Alpha Cells of the pancreas.
Where are ketone bodies made? Made in the liver
what are ketone bodies made from? excess fatty acid are partially metabolized into ketone bodies. the waste product from fatty acids is ketone bodies.
Ketonuria Ketone bodies in the urine
Ketonemia Ketone bodies in the blood.
Ketoacidosis blood Ph less than 7.35 due to ketone bodies
Hyperglycemia High blood glucose
Hypoglycemia Low blood glucose
Glucosuria/Glycosuria Glucose in the urine.
Renal Threshhold blood level above which glucose in the urine spill. (160-180 mg/dL.
IDDM Type 1 Juvenile Diabetes
Age of onset of IDDM? any, common in youth
type of onset of IDDM? Abrupt
Symptoms of IDDM Polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia
Endogenous insulin , IDDM None
Oral agents used for IDDM N/A
Genetic Susceptibility Auto Immune distruction of Beta cells.
NIDDM Type II , Adult
Age of onset of NIDDM any, common in adults
Type of onset of NIDDM gradual
Symptoms of Type II sometimes none
Genetic susceptibility Familia, Beta cell exhaustion
What type of diabetes has a tendency to get ketoacidosis Type 1. Juvenile, difficult to control
Which type of diabetes may be controlled by diet alone` Type II
what do diabetics metabolize instead of glucose? Lipids, Fats
What is retinopathy? Sclerosis of retina from fatty deposits
What are some complications of diabetes Athersclerosis, CAD, retinopathy, PAD, poor wound healing, infection, neuropathy, nephropathy
Insulin level for Diabetic coma Low
Blood glucose level for Diabetic coma High
Urine glucose, diabetic coma yes
Onset for Diabetic coma hours to days
Symptoms for diabetic coma dry tongue/skin, lethargy
Tx for diabetic coma Insulin
Insulin level for Insulin shock High
blood glucose for Insulin shock Low
Urine glucose? NO
Onset for Insulin Shock Sudden
Tx for Insulin shock Sugar, Carbs
what are symptoms of Hypoglycemia same as insulin shock, tachycardia, shakey
what is a fasting blood glucose sample? No food or bev. 8-12 hours,
OGGT oral glucose tolerance test
Samples taken for OGGT fasting blood sugar, 1, 2,3 hours after drinking "glucola"
Samples taken OGTT if hypoglycemia is suspected? hours 4 and 5.
Given the renal threshold and patient blood glucose level, how would you determine if glucose will be in the urine Based on glucose level, renal threshold is 160-180 mg/dL
How is a postprandial glucose test done? after eating, draw fasting and 2 hour after a meal.
What is a normal result for the 2 hour postprandial glucose test Less than 140 mg/dL
What does the HbA1C test measure? hemoglobin A, combined with glucose
Advantage of HbA1C? reflects blood glucose over a three month period Normal values: 4-6%.
Created by: charndoug



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