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Chemistry Ch. 6

Chapter 6

What did Mendeleev do? -developed the first periodic table based on properties and atomic mass -predicted undiscovered elements
What did Mosley do? -rearranged the periodic table based on atomic number to align properties -led to the development of the current period table
What is Periodic Law? -when elements are rearranged based on increasing atomic number, the properties repeat periodically
Arrangement of the modern table -periods (rows) -groups (columns) -metals (left side) -nonmetals (right side) -alkali metals -alkaline earth metals -halogens -noble gases
Noble gases end in: s2 p6
Representative elements are: all elements in the s and p blocks
Transition elements are: elements in the d block
Inner transition metals are: elements ion the f block
Noble Gases -group 18 -unreactive and very stable (outermost levels filled) -odorless -nonmetals -all end in s2 p6
Representative elements Group "A" elements included in groups 1A-18A
Transition metals -d block -groups 3-12 -metallic -last configuration is in the d block
Inner transition metals -f block -shiny and reactive -radioactive and very unstable -last configuration is in the f block
Group trends occur... group trends occur vertically down groups (top to bottom)
Periodic trends occur... periodic trends occur horizontally across groups (left to right)
Atomic radius -one-half the distance between nuclei of two atoms of the same element -measured in picometers
Atomic radius trends Group and periodic trends
Atomic radius group trends -atomic radius increases down a group -because outermost orbital size increases, making the atom larger
Atomic radius periodic trends -atomic radius decreases from left to right across a period because the nucleus pulls out outermost electrons and creates a greater number of protons
Atomic radius and valence electrons Valence electrons aren't shielded from increasing nuclear charge. No additional electrons come in between the nucleus and valence electrons.
Ionic radius -ionic radius is the size of an ion
Cations -lose electrons -metals
Anions -gain electrons -nonmetals
Cations are... smaller than the atom they came from
Anions are... larger than the atom they came from
The ionic radii of positive ions... generally decreases from left to right
The ionic radii of negative ions... generally increase from left to right
Ionization energy -the energy required to remove an electron -first IE: energy required to remove 1st electron -each successive ionization requires more energy
IE- across a period -1st IE INCREASES from left to right across a period because there is a greater attraction and tighter hold of the nucleus to the electron
IE- down a group -1st IE DECREASES down a group because atomic size increases and less energy is required to remove an electron
Metals like to... lose electrons
Nonmetals like to... gain electrons
The higher the charge.... the smaller the atom
The higher the charge... the harder it is to remove electrons
Electronegativity -the ability of an atom to attract electrons from another element -DECREASES down a group and INCREASES across a period
Octet Rule -atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire an octet (8 electrons, making it full ans stable)
Alkali metals group 1
Alkaline earth metals group 2
Halogens group 17
Noble gases group 18
Periodic law the classification of elements by increasing number, physical properties, and chemical properties
Transition metal ions having partially filled d orbitals usually have color. What does it mean when solutions have no color? No color means they have filled d orbitals
Metals that form ions take on the same configuration as... the noble gas before them
In atoms, the number of _____ is equal to the number of ____. Protons; electrons
In ions, the number of protons and electrons are _____. Different
Difference between periods and groups: -periods are rows -groups are columns
Metals are found on the _____ side of the periodic table. left
Nonmetals are found on the _____ side of the periodic table. right
Metalloids are found on the ______ on the periodic table. Stair step (starting with Boron)
Elements in the same group have... -the same number of valence electrons, and similar chemical and physical properties
Representative elements -elements in groups 1, 2, 13-18
When atoms lose electrons and form positively charged ions, they become... smaller
Created by: mma129