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# Chemistry Unit 2

### Solubility, Acid/Bases, Redox, Gases and Stoichiometry

What is the formula to calculate amount (mol) from mass? n=m/M
What is the formula to calculate amount (mol) from number of particles? n=N/Na
What is the formula to calculate specific heat capacity, and what are its units? SHC = (HE)/(m*∆t) [He=Heat Energy (J), m=mass (g), ∆t=Change in temperature (℃)] SHC in J g⁻¹ ℃⁻¹
What is the formula to find amount (mol) from concentration and volume? n=cV
What is the formula to find the new concentration of a solution when more volume is added? c₁V₁=c₂V₂
How do you find the concentration of hydronium ions from the concentration of hydroxide ions? [H₃O⁺]=10⁻¹⁴/[OH⁻] (And Vice Versa)
How do you find the pH from the pOH? pH + pOH = 14 pH = 14 - pOH
What is the formula to find the pH from the concentration of hyrdonium ion? pH = -log₁₀([H₃O⁺)]
What is the formula to find the concentration of hydronium ions from the pH? [H₃O⁺] = 10^-pH
What is the variable gas formula? (P₁V₁)/(n₁T₁) = (P₂V₂)/(n₂T₂) Note: This equation can be shortened if any variable is constant.
What is the General gas Formula? PV=nRT
Properties of Acids: React with bases, low pH, turn litmus paper red, usually corrosive
Properties of Bases: React with Acids, high pH, turn litmus paper blue, caustic, have a slippery feel
What is the Bronsted-Lowry definition of what defines if a substance acts as an acid or a base? Acts as an acid - If the substance gives a proton (H⁺) Acts as a base - If the substance receives a proton (H⁺)
What does amphiprotic mean? That a substance can act as both an acid and a base. (Substance must have an overall negative charge and a H⁺ion, or be water)
What does Polyprotic, Diprotic and Triprotic mean? Polyprotic - Able to donate more than one proton Diprotic - Able to donate two protons Triprotic - Able to donate three protons
Is gold a strong oxidant or reductant? A strong oxidant
Is potassium a strong oxidant or reductant? A strong reductant
What is the acronym to remember oxidation/reduction reactions? OIL RIG
What does OIL RIG mean? Oxidation is loss of electrons, Reduction is gain of electrons
Which is the positive and negative electrodes called? Negative - Anode Positive - Cathode
Is an anode in a galvanic cell where oxidation or reduction occurs? Oxidation
What is the formula for Hydroflouric Acid? HF
What is the formula for Nitric Acid? HNO₃
What is the formula for Sulfuric Acid? H₂SO₄
What is the formula for Hydrochloric Acid? HCl
What is the formula for Ethanoic Acid (acetate)? CH₃COOH
What is the formula for Phosphoric Acid? H₃PO₄
What is the formula for Carbonic Acid? H₂CO₃
What is the formula for photosynthesis? 6H₂O + 6CO₂ → C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂
What does an acid + reactive metal produce? Salt + Hydrogen
What does an acid + metal hydroxide produce? Salt + Water
What does an acid + metal oxide produce? Salt + Water
What does an acid + metal carbonate produce? Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
What does an acid + metal hydrogen carbonate produce? Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
What does an acidic oxide + base produce? Salt + Water
What is the oxidation number for Group 1 metals? +1
What is the oxidation number for Group 2 metals? +2
What is the oxidation number for flourine in compounds? -1
What is the oxidation number for hydrogen in compounds? +1, except in hydrides (with group 1/2 metals) where -1
What is the oxidation number for oxygen in compounds? -2, except with hydrogen or group 1/2 metals where -1, or flourine where +2
What is the order or rules in which to calculate oxidation numbers in compounds? 1 free elements, 2 group one element, 3 group two elements, 4 flourine, 5 hydrogen, 6 oxygen, 7 the sum of an atoms in a compound must equal the net charge of the compound
How do you write balanced half equations for redox reactions? 1 balance all elements (other than hydrogen and oxygen), 2 balance the oxygen atoms by adding water, 3 balance the hydrogen atoms by adding H⁺ ions, 4 balance the charge by adding electrons
What are some properties of gases? Low density, spread to fill space available, easily compressed, mix together rapidly
What are some properties of liquids? High density, fixed volume; adopt shape of container, almost incompressible, mix slowly unless stirred
What are some properties of solids? High density, fixed volume; generally rigid shape, almost incompressible, do not mix unless finely divided
According to the "Kinetic Molecular Theory" what are gases composed of? Gases are composed of small particles (atoms or molecules)
According to the "Kinetic Molecular Theory", what behaviours do gases exhibit in regards to volume? The total volume of particles in the sample is much smaller than the volume occupied by the gas. Most of the volume taken up by a gas is empty space.
According to the "Kinetic Molecular Theory", what behaviours do gases exhibit in regards to motion? Gas particles move rapidly in random, straight line motion, colliding with each other and the walls of the container.
According to the "Kinetic Molecular Theory", how strong is the bonding between particles? Extremely weak
What does "elastic" mean in regards to collisions between gases? Collisions between gas particles are elastic, meaning that all energy is conserved
What happens to the kinetic energy of gases as the temperature increases? The kinetic energy also increases
What is the formula to find the average kinetic energy of a gas? Ek = (m*v²)/2 [Where v is the average velocity of the gas particles]
What does the term diffusion mean, is regards to gases? It is a term that describes the way in which gases spread evenly to fill the total volume available
How many mL, equal 1cm³? 1mL = 1cm³
How many L, equal 1dm³? 1L = 1dm³
How many cm³ and dm³, equal 1m³? 1m³ = 1*10³dm³ = 1*10⁶cm³
What is Boyle's law? In both words and equation? That for a given amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. P₁V₁=P₂V₂
What is Charles' law? In both words and equation? The volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to the kelvin temperature, provided the pressure remains constant. V₁/T₁=V₂/T₂
What is the formula to find the amount (mol) of a gas, when you are given the volume it occupies? n = V/Vm
Created by: Demi Shale

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