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F321 paper

Some key definitions and questions

What is the approximate mass of an electron? 1/2000
What charge does a proton carry? +1
What is the particle called that weighs 1 and carries no charge? A neutron
What is the mass number of Li? 7
What is the definition of an isotope? - An element is an atom of the same element with the same number of protons yet different numbers of neutrons
O(17) has how many more neutrons than O(16)? 1
An atom of O(2+) has how many protons, neutrons and electrons? P= 8 N= 8 E= 6
What is the mass number of potassium (K) 39
Who hypothesized that all matter is composed of atoms? Dalton (John)
Who comprised the plum pudding model? Thomson (Joseph)
Rutherford was the first person to have evidence that contradicted the plum pudding model. How did he do this? - He fired alpha particles at an atom - With the 'gold leaf experiment'
Bohr introduced a new atom model. Describe one of the changes. -Atoms flew in paths. -Energy in orbit is related to size. -Lowest energy found in smallest orbit.
Who found a link between atomic number and x-rays? Mosely
Chadwick discovered, what? The neutron.
What is an ion? An ion is the lost or gained electrons from an atom.
What element is used for finding atomic masses? Carbon-12
All the atoms in a sample of a single isotope are identical so have the same mass. What is this definition defining? Relative Isotopic mass
Relative atomic mass can be shortened to? RAM OR Ar
What is the Mr of(CO2)? 44
What is the difference between Mr and Relative Formula Mass? RFM is for materials with a giant structure
What makes a giant structure, giant? Giant covalent structures contain a lot of non-metal atoms, each joined to adjacent atoms by covalent bonds.
How would you find the RAM of 2 isotopes? (abundance or mass/100)x RAM OR (ab)+(cd)/100
What is the formula triangle for calculating moles with mass and Mr. Mass ----------- Moles x mr
How many moles are there in 13g of sodium? 0.57
(Moles in compound X Moles in each part)/ RAM of element. This works out what? How much of an element in a substance.
What is meant by the term Empirical Formula. The simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound.
Calculate the empirical formula of a substance containing 75% carbon and 25% hydrogen. CH4
The empirical formula of a substance is CH4. The actual weights are 64g, work out actual formula. C4H16
Calculate the mass of 3 moles of SiO2. 3 x (28.1 + 32) = 180.3g
What is Avogadro's number? 6.022 X 10^-23
What is Molar gas volume? 24dm^3
Calculate the moles of 48dm of oxygen. 2
Calculate the volume of 6moles of SO2 144dm
How would you work out concentration? Number of moles/Volume
If 25cm of a solution of sodium hydroxide is neutralized by 13.5cm of 0.6mol sulfuric acid. What is the concentration of the alkali? 1) 2NaOH + H2SO4 ----> 2H2O + Na2SO4 2)N of acid = 8.1 X 10^-3 N of alkali = 0.0162 C of alkali = 0.648
Acids are a species that's a ________ donor. proton
What is the formula of citric acid? C6H8O7
Bases are normally used for ___________ reactions. Neutralization
Alaklis dissolve in water to form _________ ions OH-
How many of Na are needed to make 2.95g of NaCl 1.15g
In REDOX an uncombined element has what oxidation number? 0
In REDOX, Oxygen has what oxidation number? -2
NH3 ------> N, Reduced or Oxidized? Reduced
Cl2 + _______ ------> 2Cl- 2e-
The 'Roman Numerals' indicate what in a redox reaction? The Oxidation Number, e.g. Iron(III)= +3
Deduce the oxidation number of Fluorine in CaF2 +2
Determine empirical formula of a compound with 1.472g of Tungsten and 0.384g o oxygen. W- 1.472/183.9 = 0.008 O- 0.384/16 = 0.024 = WO3
Define the term 'First Ionisation energy' The amount of energy required to remove one electron from 1 mole of a gaseous atom.
Define the term 'Relative Atomic Mass' The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared to the weight of 1/12th of carbon 12.
Li(?)----> Li+(?) + e- (g) or Gas
What is the equation for the 2nd ionisation energy of Lithium Li+ -----> Li2+ + e-
If there is a massive energy spike in ionisation energies what could it indicate. A shell jump
What are the 3 factors that affect first ionisation energy. Atomic Radius Shielding Nuclear charge
What shape is the S sub-shell? Spherical
How many electrons can fit in a 'p' shell? 6
Write the orbital configuration for Boron? 1s2 2s2 2p1
Define an ionic bond An electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Why do ionic bonds conduct electricity when molten? Because the ions in the compound are now free to move about and carry charge to other ions.
Draw an ionic bond for Sodium Oxide [na]2+ [0(with full shell] -2
Define a covalent bond A bond formed by a shared pair of electrons.
What is the only element that can contently bond with only 6 electrons? Boron
Describe how the strength of metals increase across the groups. 1<2<3
What happens in a 'dative covalent bond' The lone pair of electrons attract a loose H+
What is the shape and bond angle of an covalent bond with 2 bonds? linear 180'
What is the shape and bond angle of an covalent bond with 3 bonds? Trigonal Planar 120'
What is the shape and bond angle of an covalent bond with 4 bonds? Tetrahedral 109.5'
What is the shape and bond angle of an covalent bond with 5 bonds? Trigonal-bi pyramidal 2X120' 2X90'
What is the shape and bond angle of an covalent bond with 6 bonds? Octahedral 90'
What is the shape and bond angle of an covalent bond with one lone pair of electrons? pyramidal 107.5'
What is the shape and bond angle of an covalent bond with 2 lone pairs of electrons? Non-linear or bent 104.5'
Define 'electonegativity' Is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons in a covalent bond.
What is a permanent dipole force? A weak attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighboring polar molecules.
How are Van Der Walls' forces created? Due to the movement of electrons, an instantaneous dipole is created causing it to create dipoles in other molecules.
Are giant covalent structures soluble? NO
What happens when a grp 2 metal reacts with oxygen? Becomes an oxide.
What happens when a grp 2 metal oxide reacts with water? It becomes a hydroxide.
What happens when a grp 2 metal reacts with water? A hydroxide and hydrogen are produced.
What happens when a Grp 2 carbonate thermally decomposes? The metal oxide and CO2 are produced.
Which halogen will always be displaced? Asatine
What colour is Iodine? Puple
What halide will dissolve in both dilute and concentrated silver nitrate? A Chlorine halide.
What halide will dissolve in only concentrated silver nitrate? Bromine halide.
Created by: keelerjack010



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