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Chemistry

Key words!

TermDefinition
Isotopes Are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
Atomic Number Is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mass Number Is the number of particles in the nucleus.
Ion Is a positively or negatively charged atom, or (covalently bonded) group of atoms )a molecular ion).
Relative isotopic mass Is the mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
Relative atomic mass Ar, is the weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
Relative molecular mass Mr, is the weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
Relative formula mass is the weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
Amount of substance is the quantity whose unit is the mole. Chemists use 'amount of substance' as a means of counting atoms.
Avogadro constant NA, is the number of atoms per mole of the carbon-12 isotope (6.02x10^23)
Mole A mole is the amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of the carbon-12 isotope.
Molar mass M, is the mass per mole of a substance. The units of molar mass are g mol^-1.
Empirical formula Is the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.
Molecule A molecule is a small group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Molecular formula Is the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
Molar volume Is the volume per mole of a gas. The units of molar volume are dm^3 mol^-1.
What is the molar volume at room temperature and pressure? 24.0dm^3mol^-1
Concentration The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute, in mol, dissolved per 1dm^3 of solution.
Standard solution A standard solution is a solution of known concentration.
When are standard solutions normally used? and why? In a titration, to determine unknown information about another substance.
Species A species is any type of particle that takes part in a chemical reaction.
Stoichiometry Is the molar relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction.
Acid An acid is a species that is a proton donor.
Base A base is a species that is a proton acceptor.
Alkali An alkali is a type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions.
Salt A salt is a chemical compound formed from an acid when a H+ ion from the acid has been replaced by a metal ion or another positive ion, such as the ammonuim ion, NH4+
Cation Is a positively charged ion
Anion Is a negatively charged ion.
Water of crystallisation Refers to water molecules that form an essential part of the crystalline structure of a compound.
Oxidation number Is a measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element. Oxidation numbers are derived from a set of rules.
Oxidation Is loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation number.
Reduction Is gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation number.
Redox reaction Is a reaction in which both reduction and oxidation take place.
Reducing agent Is a reagent that reduces (adds electron to) another species
Oxidising agent Is a reagent that oxidises (takes electrons from) another species.
Created by: phoebehafiz96