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Chaps. 7, 8, 10 & 11

Solution Homogenous mixture, substance + solvent = solution.
Solvent The substance present in greater amount. Water is the most common.
Solute The substance that is in lesser amount. Ex: Salt water - salt is the solute, water is the solvent
Hydration Water molecules surround each ion
Electrolytes Solutes that dissolve in water that conduct electricity.
Nonelectrolytes They dissolve in water as molecules and do not conduct electricity.
Alkanes Hydrocarbon family makes better fuels and nonpolar solvents.
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 IUPAC name is Octane
Hypertonic A solution that has a higher pressure (and concentration of ions) in solution than body fluids.
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 IUPAC name is Pentane
Covalent bond Organic compound primarily possess this type of bond
Colloids Mixtures in which the solute particles scatter light, pass through filter paper, but do not pass through a semipermeable membrane.
Bases Turns red litmus paper blue, bitter taste, feels slippery and is found in oven cleaners and bleach.
Crenation Shriveling of a cell due to water leaving the cell when placed in hypertonic solution.
Molarity Ratio of the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
Nonelectrolyte A solution that does not conduct an electrical current.
Saturated When a solution contains the maximum amount of solute that it can dissolve at the current conditions of temperature and pressure.
Hydrocarbons Organic compounds which only contain these elements.
Covalent Generally have a higher melting point
Weak electrolyte Gives only a few ions when dissolved in water
Acidosis Forward shift in the equilibrium causing excess acid production
Alkalosis Excess base (or alkali)
Alkanes Hydrocarbons which contain only single bonds are called alkanes.
Alkenes Unsaturated hydrocarbons having one double bond
Alkynes unsaturated hydrocarbon which has at least One carbon—carbon triple bond between two carbon atoms
Aromatics Based on the benzene ring, C6H6
Ethyl group CH3CH2
Methyl group CH3
Created by: daydreamer67