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Chem 07 Bonding

Ionic, Covalent, and Metallic Bonding. Nomenclature.

2 or more elements chemically combined in a set ratio compound
shorthand/abbreviation for a compound (uses symbols and subscripts) chemical formula
number written after and below symbol in chemical formula that tells number of that element in a compound formula subscript
chemically stable elements in group 18 on the periodic table noble gases
chemically stable arrangement of (8) electrons in the outer energy level stable octet/ngc
describes the electrons in the outer lever, or the level itself valence
force that holds atoms together in a compound chemical bond
elements with 5-7 outer e-'s, on right side of PT, tend to gain electrons (during ionic bonding) nonmetal
elements with 1-3 outer e-'s, on left side of PT, tend to lose e-'s metal
an atom with an overall charge (due to gaining or losing e-s) ion
a positively-charged ion (formed by losing electrons) cation
a negatively-charged ion (formed by gaining electrons) anion
attraction between oppositely-charged ions (in an ionic compound) ionic bond
describes a compound composed of (only) two different elements binary
chemical combination of a metal and a nonmetal ionic compound
used to reveal the ion charge of a (transition) metal that can form more than one charge Roman numerals
simplest ratio of ions in an ionic compound formula unit
any system for naming things systematically (such as compounds) nomenclature
solid whose particles are arranged in a regular geometry crystal
smallest repeating part (i.e. building block) of a crystal unit cell
the overall repeating pattern of ions (atoms) within a crystal lattice
tells the # of oppositely-charged ions surrounding a particular ion in a crystal coordination number
the loose (i.e. mobile) outer electrons in metals valence sea
attraction between the valence 'sea' and the + atom cores (kernels) in metals metallic bonding
(definition) can be beaten/hammered (or stretched into wires) without breaking malleable/ductile
simplified Bohr model using only symbols and 'dots' (for valence electrons) dot diagram
cluster of (covalently) bonded atoms with an overall charge (ex: OH-) polyatomic ion
name for the process of writing ionic formulas from individual ions that combine ion charge/criss cross method
unit cell shape for crystal of a table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) cubic (isometric)
unit cell shape that looks like a 'cereal box' orthorhombic
unit cell shape that looks like a saltine cracker box tetragonal
the two unit cells that are 'leaning' monoclinic/triclinic
6-sided unit cell shape (ex: quartz!) hexagonal
coordination # for Na+ and Cl- ions in crystal lattice of table salt (NaCl) six (6)
suffixes used in polyatomic ions to indicate the presence of oxygen (in greater or lighter numbers) -ate/-ite
prefixes used in polyatomic ions that mean 'more than' and 'less than' per-/hypo-
# of atoms in a formula unit of (NH4)3PO4 twenty (20)
formation of compounds by sharing electrons between atoms covalent bonding
attraction between atoms mutually sharing electrons covalent bond
made by chemically combining two nonmetal (binary) covalent compound
two electrons shared between bonded atoms bonding (shared) pair
pair of valence electrons in a molecular that are unshared; they only belong to one of the atoms nonbonding (lone) pair
neutral group of covalently bonded atoms (building block of covalent compounds) molecule
shows the arrangement of atoms in space in a molecule ('ball and stick' sketch of the compound) structural formula
just shows the types and # of atoms in one molecule molecular formula
one, two, or three pairs of electrons being shared between two atoms single, double, triple bonds
the (7) diatomic elements that can bond with themselves to make stable, 2-atomed molecules Br, I, N, Cl, H, O, F
explains that molecular geometry is a result of electrons in bonds spreading out to minimize repulsions VSEPR Theory
shape of all 2-atom molecules linear
shape of a water molecule bent
shape of an ammonia (NH3) molecule pyramidal
shape of a methane (CH4) molecule, its bond angle is 109.5° tetrahedral
numerical prefixes for the numbers 1 - 4 mono-/di-/tri-/tetra-
numerical prefixes for the numbers 5 - 7 penta-/hexa-/hepta-
numerical prefixes for the numbers 8 - 10 octa-/nona-/deca-
measures the attraction of an atom for electrons in a bond electronegativity
bond between atoms sharing electrons equally nonpolar covalent bond
bond between atoms that share electrons, but unequally polar covalent bond
attractions (weak) that hold one molecule to another (in solids & liquids) intermolecular forces
the three elements to which hydrogen must be bonded for it to exhibit H-bonding F, O, N
weakest intermolecular force caused by random motion (and occasional unbalanced distribution of) electrons in atoms dispersion interaction/London forces
attractions between polar molecules dipole-dipole forces
a molecule that has overall regions of charge concentration/inbalance polar molecule/dipole
attraction between H in a very polar bond and a lone pair on another nearby molecule; it is about 10% the strength of a covalent bond hydrogen bonding
Name 1 of the 3 important outcomes of H-bonding in nature mentioned in class freezing water expands; DNA 'unzips', hemoglobin folds
electronegativity difference ranges for classifying bonds as: non polar, polar, and ionic 0.0-0.4/0.5-1.9/≥2.0
formula or name of any 1 of the 3 exceptions to the octet rule having 6, 10, and 12 valence electrons respectively that were mentioned in class BCl3, PCl5, SF6
statement: during bonding, atoms rearrange electrons so that all bonded atoms have the electron configuration of a noble gas (8 valence electrons) octet rule
the suffix used with the anion of all binary compounds, ionic and covalent -ide
ionic compound with a set # of covalently-bonded water molecules attached to stabilize the crystal lattice hydrate
meaning of "•" symbol in hydrate formula (ex: CaCl2•2H2O) "attached to"
describes the (powdery) part of a hydrate that remains when its water of hydration is removed, usually by heating anhydrous
the water molecules that are attached to the ionic part of a hydrate to hold it together water of hydration
naming pattern for an acid-forming hydrogen compound whose undissolved name ends in –ide hydro-'root'-ic acid (ex: hydrogen chloride --> hydroCHLORic acid)
naming pattern for an acid-forming hydrogen compound whose undissolved name ends in –ate 'root'-ic acid (ex: hydrogen nitrate --> nitric acid)
naming pattern for an acid-forming hydrogen compound whose undissolved name ends in –ite 'root'-ous acid (ex: hydrogen phosphite --> phosphorous acid)
Created by: goakley