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Chemistry Quarter 1

Chemistry Science that deals with the materials and the universe and the changes that these materials undergo.
Atoms The smallest units of elements with properties of the element.
Atoms can be named after: Scientists, places, color
Most abundant elements in the Universe: Hydrogen & Helium
6 Branches of Chemistry Organic, Inorganic, Physical, Analytical, Biochemistry, Theoretical
Aristotle Believed there were 4 elements: Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and above all the Eather
Alchemists Midivil scientists that tried changing the chemical makeup of materials, specifically gold.
Henri Becquerel Discovered radiation in 1896.
Marie Curie Coined the term "radiation" and won the Nobel Prize.
Rutherford Determined the composition of atoms.
Observation Noting a measurement or quality of some substance or process
Qualitative No measurements.
Quantitative Measurements taken.
Macroscopic Large scale.
Microscopic Atomic scale.
Interpretation Our ideas based on observations we have made.
Experiment Method of collecting data to evaluate a hypothesis.
Variable A quantity that can change
Independent Variable Variable you change in an experiment (only 1 independent variable per experiment!!).
Dependent Variable Outcome that we measure.
Constant Factor that doesn't change.
Control Standard by which the test results can be compared.
Theory Explanation based on observations and investigations.
Scientific Law Natural Law. Rule of nature that seems to be true all the time, but doesn't explain why.
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Mass Measure of amount of matter (g, kg).
Volume Amount of space (L, ml, cm^3, m^3)
Density Mass per unit volume (D=m/v) (g/cc, kg/m^3)
Element Pure substance made of only one kind of atom (cannot be separated into simpler substances).
Allotrope Different forms of the same element.
Compound Substance made of 2 or more elements chemically combined.
Molecule Atoms stuck together by bonds.
Extensive Property Depends on amount of matter. ex: mass
Intensive Property Doesn't depend on amount of matter. ex: density, boiling/melting point, magnetism
Physical Property Inherent characteristics: size, shape, boiling point
Chemical Property Ability to form new substances.
Physical Change Change in appearance without a change in identity.
Chemical Change A new substance is formed.
Law of Conservation of Mass Mass isn't gained or lost during a chemical reaction.
Standard Measurement Exact quantity people agree to use for comparison.
Length Distance between two points.
Derived Unit Combination of different units.
Measuring Temperature SI Unit is the Kelvin (K)
Thompson Model Discovered electron using cathode tube ray. Plum Pudding Model.
Bohr Model Atom mostly empty space. Electrons orbit like planets around the sun.
James Chadwic Discovered the neutron in 1932.
1st level 2 electrons
2nd level 8 electrons
3rd level 18 electrons
4th level 32 electrons
Valance Electrons Electrons in outer level or sublevel.
Quarks Make up protons and neutrons.
Average Atomic Mass Average mass of all isotopes of an element.
Atomic Number Number of protons. Usually equal the number of electrons.
Atomic Mass Number of protons plus number of neutrons.
Isotope Same element with a different number of neutrons.
Allotrope The same element or isotope with a different formation.
Half Life Amount of time it takes for half of a sample of an isotope to break down into other elements.
Carbon Dating Using the decay of C-14 to determine the age of organic substances.
Electron Dot Structure Shorthand method of showing the number of valence electrons of an element.
Ion An atom that has gained or lost electrons.
Positive Ion Cation. Lost an electron. More protons. Usually metals.
Negative Ion Anion. Gained an electron. Fewer protons. Usually non-metals.
Oxidation Number Combining the ability of an element (charge of an ion).
Chemical Bond Force that holds atoms together in a compound.
Ionic Bond Electrons are transfered, creating opposite charges which attract.
Chemical Formula Indicates the elements in a compound and the ratio of those elements.
Type 1 Binary Compound 2 Elements A-Group metal + non metal
Type 2 Binary Compound Transition metal + non metal
Type 3 Binary Compound 2 non metals share electrons
Polyatomic Ions A group charged atoms that act like a single ion.
Acid Substance that detonates hydrogen ions. Usually begins with H.
Conversions G ••M••KHD|B|dcm••mu••n
AMU 1.66x10^-24
Avagadro's Number 6.02x10^23
Hydrate Compound with water attached.
Chemical Reaction A well defined example of a chemical change.
S amorphous solid
Cr crystaline solid
L liquid
g gas
Aq aqueous
Strong Electrolytes Almost all ions in solution. Completely dissociates.
Weak Electrolytes Few ions in solution- equilibrium. Somewhat dissociates.
Nonelectrolytes Almost no ions in solution. Ions dissoiciate from one another.
Molecular Equation Listed as molecules.
Complete Ionic Equation Lists all ions.
Net Ionic Equation Remove spectator ions.
Synthesis Reaction 2 or more substances combine to form a new ion.
Combustion Reaction Synthesis reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen to produce energy in the form of heat and light. From hydrocarbon.
Decomposition Reaction One substance breaks down into 2 or more simpler substances.
Single Displacement Reaction One element replaces another in a compound.
Double Displacement Reaction 2 elements replace others in a compound.
Acid Based Reaction Reaction Substances that ionize to form H+ in solutions.
Bases Substances that react with H+ ions formed by acids.
Strong Acid/Base Strong electrolytes
Weak Acid/Base Weak electrolytes
Neutralization Occurs when a solution of an acid and base are mixed.
Oxidation Reduction Reaction When a metal gives up electrons to a non metal.
Created by: haleystafs