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Chemistry: Ch. 5

Chapter 5

Electromagnetic spectrum -series of waves including visible and invisible light -visible: ROYGBIV -invisible: everything else
Wavelength -lambda -distance between two crests -measured in nm, m, cm
Frequency -v -number of waves -1/s, s to the neg. 1st, Hz
Speed of light -3.00 x 10 to the 8th m/s
Finding speed of light (equation) c=λv
Finding wavelength (equation) λ=c/v
Finding frequency (equation) v=c/λ
Finding energy (equation) E=h*v (h=Planck's constant) (v=frequency)
Planck's Constant 6.6262 x 10 to the -34 J/S
What did Max Planck propose? -proposed that light was emitted is "packets" of energy called quanta
What is excited state? -when an electron gains energy
What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle? -declares that it is impossible to know the velocity and position of a particle at the same time
Who proposed the Quantum Mechanical Model and what did it conclude? -Schrodinger and Heisenberg -concluded that electrons are not found in orbits, but rather in atomic orbitals
What is a quantum? -the amount of energy needed to move an electron away from the nucleus
What are quantum numbers? -regions in space where electrons are found
Sublevels S, P, D, F
S -spherical -1 orbital -maximum # of electrons: 2
P -dumbbell -3 orbitals -maximum # of electrons: 6
D -clover -5 orbitals -maximum # of electrons: 10
F -forget about it -7 orbitals -maximum # of electrons: 14
Aufbau Principle -electrons enter orbitals at the lowest energy level first
Pauli Exclusion Principle -no more than 2 electrons can occupy an orbital -electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins
Hund's Rule -when electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all the orbitals contain one electron with parallel spins
Exceptional configurations -only applies to elements that end in d4 and d9 -exception: a half-full d sublevel is more stable than a partially-filled d sublevel -(ex) elements go from: 4s2 3d4 to 4s1 3d5
Created by: mma129