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# Statistics

### Cards for revision

TermDefinition
Primary Data Data that you collect yourself or is is collected by somewhere under your direct supervision.
Secondary Data Data that has already been collected and made available from an external source.
Univariate Data When one piece of data is collected from each member of the sample.
Bivariate Data When two pieces of data are collected from each member of the sample.
Quantitative Data Data that is counted or measured.
Discrete Data Data that can only take particular values.
Continuous Data Data that can take any value within a range.
Qualitative Data Data that cannot be measured.
Categorical Data Data that can only be described in words and are organised into categories.
Ordinal Data Data that are organised in logical order or ranking.
Population Complete set of data under consideration.
Census A collection of data relating to a population.
Sampling Frame List of every item in a population.
Sample Small part of the population selected.
Random Sample A sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being collected.
Statistical Inference Conclusions drawn from a sample that are applied to the whole population.
Bias Anything that distorts data so that they will not give a representative sample.
Sample Survey A survey that collects data from a sample of the population, usually using a questionnaire.
Experiment A controlled study in which the researcher understands the cause-and-effect relationships.
Observational Studies Data obtained by making observations are called observational studies.
Designed Experiments Data obtained from an experiment by counting or measuring.
Questionnaire A set of questions used to obtain data from a population
Respondent Anyone who answers a questionnaire.
Measures of Centrality Mean, Median and Mode.
Mean The sum of all the values of a data set divided by the number of values in the set.
Mode The item that occurs most in a set of data.
Median The middle value in a set of data.
Measures of Variability Range, Standard Deviation and Interquartile Range.
Range highest value - lowest value.
Standard Deviation A measure of deviation from the mean.
Interquartile Range Measure of the values that lie in the 2nd and 3rd quartiles.
Histogram Visual Representation used to represent discrete or continuous data.
Back-to-back Stem and Leaf Diagrams Used to compare two samples by showing the results together on a back-to-back stemplot.
Scatter Diagram Visual Representation used to display the relationship between two variables.
Correlation Used to imply a connection between variables.
Line of best fit A visual representation between a scatter and a trend line.
Created by: smoylett