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Definitions of Words

Mole Ratios Based on balanced chemical equations.
Stoichiometry The process of using a chemical equation to calculate the relative masses of the reactants and products involved in a reacion.
Limiting reacant(limiting reagant) The reacant that runs out first and thus limits the amounts of products that can form
Theoretical yield The maximum amount of a given product that can be formed when the limiting reacant is completely consumed
Percent yield The actual yield of a product as the percentage of the theoretical yield
Electromagnetic radiation Radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vaccum
Wavelenght The distance bewteen two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
Frequency The number of waves (cycles) per second that pass a given point in space
Photon A particle of electromagnetic radiation
Wave Mechanical Model General picture of the model
Orbital The three-dimensional region in which there is a high probability of finding an electron in an atom
Principal Energy Levels we call the levels
Sublevels subdivided levels
Pauli exclusion principle an atomic orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons and those two electrons must have oppposite spins
Electron Configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom
Orbital Diagram/Box Diagram Orbitals are represented by boxes grouped by sublevel with small arrows indicating the electrons
Valance Electrons The electron in the outermost principal energy level of the atom
Core Electron An inner electron: an electron not in the outermost principal energy level of the atom
Lanthanide series group of 14 elements
Actinide series group of 14 elements
Main-group elements/Representative Group 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
Metals Luctrous apperance,ability to change shape with breaking, good with heat and electricity
Nonmetals do not have physical properties although there aer some expections
Metalloids they exhibit both metal and nonmetals
Atomic size explains the decrease and some thought
Ionization energy the amount of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
Bond the force that holds two or more atoms together and makes them funcation as a unit
Bond energy the energy required to break a given chemical bond
Ionic bonding the attraction bewteen oppositely charged ions
Ionic compound a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions
Convalent bonding a type of bonding in which atoms share electrons
Polar convalent bond a covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts the shared electrons more than the other atom
Electronegativity the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
Dipole moment a property of molecule in which the charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge
Lewis structure a representation of a molecule or polyatomic ion showing how valance electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule or ion
Duet rule where it shares two electrons
Bonding pair a pair of electrons that are shared between two atoms forming a covalent or polar-covalent bond
Lone pair electron pairs in a lewis stucture that are not involved in bonding
Single bond a covalent or polar covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared by two atoms
Double bond a covalent or polar covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
Triple bond a convalent or polar covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
Resonance a condition occurring when more than one valid lewis stucture can be written for particular molecule
Molecular structure(geometric structure) the three dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule
Valance shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model a model used to predict molecular geometry. based on the idea that pairs of electrons surrounding an atom repel each other and that the atoms in a molecule are positioned to minimize this repulsion
Solution a homogenous mixture
Solvent the dissolving medium in a solution
Solute the substance dissolved in the solvent to make a solution
Aqueous solution a solution with water as a solvent
Saturated describes a solution that contains as much solute as will dissolve at that temperature
Unsaturated describes a solution in which more solute can dissolve than is dissolved already at the temperature
Supersaturated describes a solution that contains more solute thean a saturated solution will hold at that temperature
Concentrated describes a solution in which a relatively large amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
Dilute describes a solution in which a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
Mass percent mass of solute present in a given mass of solution
Molarity describes the amount of solute in moles and the volume of the solution in liters
Standard solution a solution in which the concentration is accurately known
Dilution the process of adding solvent to a solution to lower the concentration of soulte
Neutralization reaction an acid base reaction
Equivalent of an acid the amount of acid that can furnish one mole of hydrogen ions
Equivalent of a base the amount of base that can furnish one mole of hydroxide ions
Equivalent weight the mass in grams of one equivalent of an acid or a base
Colligative property a property that is dependent only on the number of solute particles present in solution
Acid a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solution a proton donor
Base a substance that produces hydroxide ions in solution a substance that accepts a proton
Arrhenius concept of acids and bases acids produce hydrogen ions in solution bases produce hydroxide ions in solutions
Conjugate acid the substance formed when a proton is added to a base
Bronsted-lory model acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor
Conjugate base the remaining substance when a proton is lost from a acid
Conjugate acid-base pair two substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a singe proton
Hydronium ion H3O+
Strong acid an acid that completely dissociates to produce H+ ions in solution
Weak acid an acid that dissociates to a slight extent in aqueous solution
Diprotic acid an acid that can furnish two protons
Oxyacid an acid in which the acidic proton is attached to an oxygen atom
Organic acid an acid with a carbon atom backbone and a carboxyl group
Carboxyl group carbon-atom backbone
Amphoteric substance a substance that can behave either as a acid or a base
Ionization of water transfer of one molecule to another to produce a hydroxide ion and a hydronium ion
Ion-product constant for water
pH scale provides a compact to represent solution acidity
Indicator(acid base) a chemical that changes color depending on the pH of a solution
Indicator paper a strip of paper coated with a combination of acid-base indicators
pH meter a device used to measure the pH of a solution
Neutralization reaction an acid-base reaction
Titration a technique in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
Standard solution a solution in which the concentration is accurately known
Buret a device used for a accurate measurement of the delivery of a given volume of a liquid or solution
Equivalance point(stoichiometric point) the point in a titation when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution that is being titrated
Titration curve(pH curve) a plot of pH of solution versus volume of titrant added to a given solution
Buffered solution a solution that resists a change in pH when either an acid or a base are added
Collision model molecules must collide in order to react used to account for the fact that reactions rate depends on concentraions of reactants and temperature
Activation energy the minimum energy required in order to cause a chemical reaction
Catalyst a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed
Enzyme a large molecule, usually a protein, which catalyzes a biological reactions
Homogenous reactions reaction involving reactants and products in the same state
Heterogenous reactions reactions involving reactants and products in different states
Equilibrium the exact balance of two processes, one of which is opposite of the other
Chemical Equilibrium a dynamic state where the concentraions of the reactants and the products remain constant over time, as long as the conditions are not changed
Law of chemical equilibruim it is a general description of the equilibruim conditions
Equilibrium expression it is the way that you write it out
Equilibrium constant it is where it stays in the place
Equilibrium position a particular set of equilibrium concentrations of all reactants and products in a chemical sysytem
Homogenous equilibrium an equilibrium system in which all reactants and products are in the same state
Heterogeneous equilibrium an equilibrium system in which all reactants and products are in different states
Le Chatelier's principle if a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium position will shift to reduce the effect of that change
Solubility product constant the constant for the equilibrium expression representing the dissolving of an ionic solid in water
Created by: 14larkat



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