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chemistry intro

vocabulary and concepts

What are the standard units for quantitative measurements? mass: gram (g)
length: meter (m) or centimeter (cm)
Give the difference between solids liquids
liquids - not compressible and does not maintain shape
gasses - compressible and does not maintain shape
When using the metric system what are the common prefixes and what do they mean?
kilo - 10³
base unit
milli - 10⁻³
micro - 10⁻⁶
nano - 10⁻⁹
What is meant by the phase of a substance? The phase of a substance is the state of matter it is currently in
How are pure substances different from mixtures? Pure substances are made of the same material throughout whereas mixtures are a combination of several different substances.
How is a physical process different from a chemical process? During a physical change
During a chemical change the substance you end up with is chemically different from the substance you started with.
What characterizes an intensive property? Give two examples. It is a property that is true of a substance now matter the size or shape of the sample
Examples: density color
What characterizes an extensive property? Give two examples. It is property that is dependent on the amount or shape of a sample.
Examples: weight length
What is density? Density is the mass of an object per unit volume.
Describe how the density of an object can be determined. The density is determined by dividing the mass of an object by the volume of that object.
Describe the rudimentary structure of an atom. An atom has a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons with electrons flying around in shells outside the nucleus.
What are the three principle subatomic particles? -protons (+)
-neutrons (0)
electronis (-)
What is the difference between an atom an ion
ion - particle that is has a charge BESIDES 0
molecule - a particle that is composed of atoms and has a charge of 0
What is the approximate mass of each of the fundamental subatomic particles? proton - 1 amu
neutron - 1 amu
electron - 1/1840 amu
What does the abbreviation amu stand for? How many grams is 1 amu? atomic mass unit; 1.66x10⁻²⁴ grams (inverse of avogadro's #)
What is meant by the term "nuclear charge?" What symbol is used? The nuclear charge is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus and is denoted with Z.
ex. Z of Na = +11
What property makes two atoms members of the same element? the number of protons
How can the mass of an atom be determined? The mass of an atom is determined by adding the number of protons and neutrons together.
What property allows two atoms of the same element to have different masses? the number of neutrons
What are isotopes? They are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons.
What does the number under the symbol on the periodic table indicate It indicates the average atomic mass of all of that element that occurs on earth.
In what ways are the elements arranged in the periodic table? They are arranged into periods (rows) and families (columns).
What are the 7 diatomic elements? H₂
What are the 2 polyatomic elements? S₈
What are the names of families 1A - 8A on the periodic table? 1a - alkali metals
2a - alkaline earths
3a - aluminum family
4a - carbon family
5a - nitrogen family
6a - calcogens
7a - halogens
8a - noble gasses
What is a transuranium element? It is any element that comes after uranium in the periodic table (which are all artificial).
What is a transition metal? It is a metal in any of the 'b' groups
What is a main group element? An element that is not a transition metal.
How are the families of elements numbered? 1-18 (or else 1a
In the expression 3O₂ what does the three represent? The two?
What is the difference between S and S₈? S is elemental sulfur whereas S₈ is a sulfur molecule made of eight sulfur atoms.
What is an empiracle formula? It is the most reduced ratio of elements in a molecule.
What is a structural formula? It represents the atoms and arrangements of bonds in a molecule
Name the 6 types of chemical reactions. -Combination Rxns
-Decomposition Rxns
-Combustion Rxns
-Single Replacement Rxns
-Double Replacement Rxns
-Neutralization Rxns
Between oxidation and reduction which is losing electrons and which is gaining them?
Reduction - gaining of electrons
Created by: rufuspat