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AQA A1 Alcohol

AQA Alcohols

QuestionAnswer
What is the name of the reaction that produces alcohol from Ethene? Hydration
What is the type of reaction that produces alcohol from Ethene? Electrophilic Addition
What are the reaction condition where alcohol is produced from Ethene? 300C, 60atm. Phosphoric Acid catalyst
Describe what happens to the unreacted Ethene and Water during the hydration of Ethene that produces Ethanol They are recycled and passed through the reactor again until 95% conversion is achieved
Ethanol can be made by fermentation of sugar. What are the reaction conditions? Yeast, anaerobic conditions, temperatures between 25 and 37C
Ethanol can be made by fermentation of sugar. Why can we not get solutions of alcohol with a concentration higher than 14%? The enzyme stops working/the yeast dies
What would happen if Oxygen got in during fermentation of sugar? Ethanol would be oxidised into Ethanal or Ethanoic Acid
What is the equation for fermentation of sugar? C6H12O6 --> 2 CH3-CH2-OH + 2 CO2
What is the equation for the Hydration of Ethene? CH2=CH2 + H2O --> CH3-CH2-OH
What is the disadvantage of the fermentation process compared to hydration? Solution contains low concentration of alcohol and need to be further distilled; batch process
What is the disadvantage of the hydration of Ethene compared to the fermentation process? Uses non-renewable resources that could be used in other processes; high energy demand;high initial costs and maintenance costs for high-pressure vessel
What is the equation for the Combustion of Ethanol? CH3-CH2-OH + 3 O2 --> 2 CO2 + 3 H2O
What is the equation for the Combustion of Methanol? CH3-OH + 1.5 O2 --> CO2 + 2 H2O
What is the advantage of the fermentation process compared to Hydration of Ethene Renewable raw material; low energy demand
Explain why countries like Brazil make Ethanol by fermentation rather than hydration? Sugar cane is available; no reserves of crude oil
Explain why Alcohol have a much higher bp than Alkanes with same number of Carbons Strong Hydrogen bonds between Alcohol molecules; Weak VdW forces between Alkane molecules
What must you include when drawing a Hydrogen bond Ensure that you show the polarity of BOTH atoms on each bond (4 atoms in total!); show the lone pair on the oxygen; draw the "dashed" line between the O:|||H(delta+); finally ensure straight line
What does "highly volatile" mean? When a liquid turns into a gas really easily; ie does not need much energy to break bonds between molecule
If a chemical has a high boiling point, is it volatile or not? High boiling point = low volatility
Explain why Alcohols are soluble in water Because a Alcohol molecule can form a H-bond with water molecule
Explain why Alcohols are less soluble as the length of the chain increases Because the long Hydrocarbon chain can not form H-bond with water; the chain can not disrupt the H-bonds that exist between water molecules
What is a primary alcohol? When the Carbon that carries the OH group has been SUBSTITUTED only ONCE/has still got TWO Hydrogen atoms//is linked to THREE other carbon atoms
What is a secondary alcohol? When the Carbon that carries the OH group has been SUBSTITUTED TWICE/has still got ONE Hydrogen/is linked to TWO other carbon atoms
What is a tertiary alcohol? When the Carbon that carries the OH group has been SUBSTITUTED THREE times/has got NO Hydrogen left/is linked to THREE other carbon atom
Classify Propan2ol as primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol Secondary (two alkyl groups; one Hydrogen on the Carbon that carries the OH group)
Classify CH3-CH2-CH2-OH as primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol Primary (one alkyl groups; two Hydrogen on the Carbon that carries the OH group)
Classify (CH3)3COH as primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol Tertiary(three alkyl(methyl) groups; NO Hydrogen on the Carbon that carries the OH group)
How many structural isomers for C4H10O? Name all of them. 4: Butan-1ol; Butan-2ol; 2Methyl Propan-1ol; 2Methyl Propan-2ol
What type of reaction takes place when an Alcohol is reacted with acidified Potassium DiChromate? Oxidation
What product is collected when a Primary Alcohol is reacted with acidified Potassium DiChromate under reflux? Carboxylic Acid
What product is collected when a Primary Alcohol is reacted with acidified Potassium DiChromate under distillation? Aldehyde
What are the reaction conditions if you want to collect a Carboxylic Acid from the oxidation of a Primary Alcohol with acidified Potassium Dichromate? Heat under reflux
What are the reaction conditions if you want to collect an Aldehyde from the oxidation of a Primary Alcohol with acidified Potassium Dichromate? Distillation
What product is collected when a Secondary Alcohol is reacted with acidified Potassium DiChromate under reflux? Ketone
What product is collected when a tertiary Alcohol is reacted with acidified Potassium DiChromate under reflux? Nothing: the tertiary Alcohol can not get oxidised!
Explain why Aldehydes have a lower boiling point than Alcohols Alcohols have H-bonds between molecules whereas Aldehydes have permanent dipoles-permanent dipole interactions between molecules
If Potassium Dichromate turns green under reflux during an oxidation reaction, can you deduce the class of alcohol? No; the Alcohol could be Primary or Secondary
What is the acid used to acidify Potassium Dichromate? Dilute Sulfuric Acid
What is the colour change when a Primary Alcohol is oxidised with acidified Potassium Dichromate? From orange to green
What is reflux? Continuous boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that no solvent is lost
What product is formed when 2MethylHexan-1ol is oxidised under reflux? 2MethylHexanoic Acid (you must first identify the TYPE of alcohol , then recall the pattern; then DRAW the structures of reactants, of products; then name)
What product is formed when 2MethylHexan-1ol is oxidised under distillation? 2MethylHexanal (you must first identify the TYPE of alcohol , then recall the pattern; then DRAW the structures of reactants, of products; then name)
What product is formed when 3MethylHexan-2ol is oxidised under reflux? 3MethylHexanone (you must first identify the TYPE of alcohol , then recall the pattern; then DRAW the structures of reactants, of products; then name)
What are the products collected when an alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid in the presence of an acid catalyst? An ester and water
What alcohol and Carboxylic acid are needed to produce Methyl Ethanoate Methanol and Ethanoic Acid
What are the conditions for the esterification reaction? Concentrated Sulfuric Acid (as a catalyst), heat
When forming an ester, how will the name of the alcohol change? the Alcohol will provide the AlkYL part of the ester
When forming an ester, how will the name of the carboxylic acid change? The Carboxylic acid will provide the AlkanOATE part of the ester
What are esters used for? Adhesives, solvents and flagrances
What is an esterification? The reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid to produce and ester and water
What is a dehydration reaction? It is an example of an elimination reaction in which water is removed; in an elimination reaction ONE reactant produces TWO products
What are the conditions for the dehydration of an alcohol? Concentrated Sulfuric Acid (or conc Phosphoric Acid), heat under reflux
Describe which part of the alcohol molecule are lost during a dehydration reaction The OH group on a given Carbon and the Hydrogen on the NEXT carbon along
What are the names of the three isomers produced during the dehydration of Butan-2ol? But-1-ene; E-But-2-ene; Z-But-2-ene (draw DISPLAYED form. of alcohol; work out 1st product by removing OH and H from adjacent C; draw alkene; check for E/Z; then work out 2nd product: remove OH + H from OTHER adjacent C; draw alkene; check for E/Z)
What is the name of the product formed from the reaction of Butan-1ol and Ethanoic acid? Butyl-Ethanoate
What product is formed when 2MethylHexan-2ol is oxidised under reflux? None because it is a tertiary alcohol!
What product is formed when 2MethylCycloHexanol is oxidised under reflux? 2MethylCycloHexanone (you must first identify the TYPE of alcohol , then recall the pattern; then DRAW the structures of reactants, of products; then name)
Describe mechanism of elimination/dehydration of alcohols Attack lone pair on O to H+; redraw as you see; check charges; simultaneous fold of C-O bond on the O and C-H to "between the two C"
A compound is tested with Tollens reagent and a silver mirror forms. What do you infer? The compound is an aldehyde
A compound is tested with Fehling's reagent and a silver mirror forms. What do you infer? The compound is an aldehyde
What observation would you make for the reaction of an aldehyde and Tollens reagent? A silver mirror forms
Created by: UrsulineChem