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Acids and Bases

Year 9

Name 3 common acids. Acetic acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid.
3 Common acids and their uses. Acetic acid: Flavour and preserving food. Citric acid: Found in some fruits and a food additive. Sulfuric acid: Car batteries, manufacturing fertiliser.
General properties of acids. Taste sour. Corrosive. Turn litmus red. Can be diluted or concentrated. pH level below 7. Conduct electric current.
Name 3 common bases. Amonia, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide.
3 Common bases and their uses. Amonia: In cleaning products. Sodium hydroxide: Make soaps and oven cleaners. Calcium hydroxide: Reduce acidity in soil.
General properties of bases. Neutralise acids. Alkalis, soluble in water. Taste bitter. pH higher than 7. Increase OH ion in a solution. Feel slippery.
Describe pH scale used for testing acids and bases. Scale consisting of numbers 0-14. Conveys how acidic or basic a solution is through the change of colour conveyed in the solution. Acidic, below 7, redish. Basic, above 7, blueish. Neutral 7, green.
What are indicators and how are they used. Indicators determine what something is using it's procided info. Acid/base indicator determine whether solution is acidic or basic through the change of colour in solution.
3 Examples of indicators and their colour changes in different solutions. Universal: Range of colours, concentrated acid; red; to very akaline solution; deep blue. Litmus: Acid; red. Basic; blue. Bromothymol Blue; Acidic; yello. Basic; blue.
Process of neutralisation. A chemical reaction where an acid and a base cancel each other out and form a salt and a water and therfore, result in a neutral solution.
General word equation for neutralisation. Acid + Base = Salt + Water
Why is water a neutral substance (relate to pH scale). There are equal amounts of hydrogen and hydroxide ions and therfore, they cancel each other out. Results in water being situated in the middle of pH scale at 7 as it is not an acid nor a base.
Common salts and their uses. Sodium chloride (NaCl): table salt, seasons food. Calcium chloride: deicer removes dampness from rooms. Zinc acetate: dietary supplement.
Are the family names of salt named after the acid that producd it? Give examples. Yes it is, as conveyed in the family salt name, chlrodies, is produced from sulfates (H2SO4). Nitrates are formed from nitric acids. Acetates are formed from acetic acids.
What is the Law of Conservation of Mass? It states that matter can neither be destroyed nor created during a chemical reaction, it can only be rearranged. Always same amount of atoms before, during and after a chemical reaction.
Brief overview of a chemical reaction. During a chemical reaction, the bonds between atoms are broked from original matter. These atoms are called the reactants in the reaction. The atoms are then rearranged and new bonds form, creating new products, called PRODUCTS.
Created by: alyssarey



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