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Organic

Regents Chem - Organic

QuestionAnswer
organic chemistry study of carbon and its compounds
hydrocarbon contains only hydrogen and carbon
homologous series a family of hydrocarbons, like alkanes, they all contain the same general formula.
Functional groups on table R, changes that can be made or added to a hydrocarbon that make it into a whole different category of organic compound (ie. Ketone, ester)
Polymer several hydrocarbons linked together by addition polymerization or dehydration synthesis
Natural polymers silk, starch, cellulose
Synthetic polymers nylon, Teflon, Kevlar, polyester (poly as a prefix in general)
Substitution start with an alkane, switch one hydrogen with a halogen. The other product is an acid
Addition start with alkene or alkyne. Break apart the multiple bond and add 2 halogens. (one product only)
Hydrogenation an addition reaction that uses hydrogen instead of a halogen
Fermentation start with a sugar and ends with ethanol and carbon dioxide
Esterification organic acid and alcohol makes ester and water
Saponification makes soaps
Organic oxidation organic acids are oxidized to make alcohols
Isomers have the same molecular formula but different structures
Saturated organic compound contains all single bonds, like alkanes
Unsaturated organic compound contains at least one multiple bond
Alkane Hydrocarbon with all single bonds and general formula CnH2n+2
Alkene Hydrocarbon with at least one double bond and general formula CnH2n
Alkyne Hydrocarbon with at least one triple bond and general formula CnH2n-2
Alcohol Organic compound that contains an -OH functional group
Aldehyde Organic compound that contains an =O functional group at the end of its structure
Ester Organic compound that contains an double bond O and another O in the middle of its chain
Ether Organic compound that contains an -O- in the middle of a chain with C's on either side of it
Organic Acid Organic compound that contains an C=O and -OH (or COOH) together at the end of the chain.
Ketone Organic compound that contains an =O in the middle of the chain
Halide (Halocarbon) Organic compound that contains a halogen functional group
Amine Organic compound that contains a NH2 functional group
Amide Organic compound that contains a C=O and NH2 together as a functional group
Amino Acid Organic compound that contains a NH2 functional group at one end and COOH (organic acid) group at the other end.
Polymer a very long organic compound; comprised of repeated subunits
Polymerization linking together small hyrdocarbons into longer chain by either removing water (condenstaion, dehydration) or breaking double bonds to single bonds (addition)
cracking or hydrolysis splitting large polymer hydrocarbons back down into their subunits by adding water
Created by: etucci