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Regents Chem - Organic

organic chemistry study of carbon and its compounds
hydrocarbon contains only hydrogen and carbon
homologous series a family of hydrocarbons, like alkanes, they all contain the same general formula.
Functional groups on table R, changes that can be made or added to a hydrocarbon that make it into a whole different category of organic compound (ie. Ketone, ester)
Polymer several hydrocarbons linked together by addition polymerization or dehydration synthesis
examples of natural polymers silk, starch, cellulose
examples of synthetic polymers nylon, Teflon, Kevlar, polyester (poly as a prefix in general)
Substitution start with an alkane, switch one hydrogen with a halogen. The other product is an acid
Addition start with alkene or alkyne. Break apart the multiple bond and add 2 halogens. (one product only)
Hydrogenation an addition reaction that uses hydrogen instead of a halogen
Fermentation start with a sugar and ends with ethanol and carbon dioxide
Saponification NaOH +fatty acid yields soap and water
Organic oxidation organic acids are oxidized to make alcohols
Isomers have the same molecular formula but different structures
When is an organic cmpd "saturated?" contains ONLY single bonds
Alkane Hydrocarbon general formula CnH2n+2
Alkene Hydrocarbon with at least one double bond and general formula CnH2n
Alkyne Hydrocarbon with at least one triple bond and general formula CnH2n-2
Alcohol Organic compound that contains an -OH functional group
Halide (Halocarbon) Organic compound that contains F, Cl, Br or I functional group
Polymer a very long organic compound; comprised of repeated subunits
Polymerization linking together small hyrdocarbons into longer chain by either removing water (condenstaion, dehydration) or breaking double bonds to single bonds (addition)
cracking or hydrolysis splitting large polymer hydrocarbons back down into their subunits by adding water
Combustion HC fuel + Oxygen yields CO2 and water
diene contains 2 double bonds
triene contains 3 double bonds
alco-diol alcohol with 2 hydroxyl (OH) groups
Created by: etucci