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Phys. behav. matter

Regents Chem:Physical behavior of matter

QuestionAnswer
Standard pressure 1atm or 101.3 kPa
Standard temperature 273 K
Combined gas law (P1V1)/T1 equals (P2V2)T2
Boyles law as external pressure on a gas increases, the volume of the gas decreases. Indirect relationship, graph looks like a downward curve.
Charles law as temperature of a gas increases, its volume increases. Direct relationship, graph is a line sloped up
Graham’s law of (effusion) diffusion when a mixture of gases is allowed to escape its container, the smallest gas will diffuse the fastest and the container will be richer in the heavier gas after some time.
Dalton’s law of partial pressure In a mixture the total number of moles of gas is equal to the sum of all the moles of individual gases and the total pressure is equal to the sum of all the partial pressures.
Vapor pressure the pressure a liquid exerts on its surface, as it tries to become a gas.
Boiling and vapor pressure a liquid boils when its vapor pressure is greater than or equal to atmospheric pressure
Kinetic molecular theory of gases gases move rapidly in straight paths, collisions between gases are elastic, gases have no attractive forces for each other.
Gases obeying ideal gas law at high temperature and low pressures
Gases deviate from ideal gas law at low temperatures and high pressures
Heat of vaporization (Hv) heat required to boil one gram of a liquid (see table B for water’s Hv)
Heat of fusion (Hf) heat required to melt one gram of a solid (see table B for waters Hf)
Absolute zero zero kelvin or –273 oC, the lowest possible theoretical temperature.
Parts per million (PPM) grams solute/grams solution x one million
Saturated solution that has as much solute dissolved as is possible for given conditions
Supersatured solution that has more solute dissolved than should be possible.
Unsaturated solution that can still have more solute dissolved in it at given conditions.
Boiling point elevation property of solution containing a nonvolatile solute (this means it won’t evaporate out of the solution). The solution’s boiling point is higher that the solvent’s would be. As concentration increases, so does the effect on BP
Freezing point depression property of solution containing a nonvolatile solute (this means it won’t evaporate out of the solution). The solution’s freezing point is lower that the solvent’s would be. As concentration increases, so does the effect on FP.
Electrolyte a solution that conducts electricity. Acids, bases and salts.
Miscible two liquids can make a non-layered (homogeneous) mixture. They’re Mixable!
Activation energy energy required to take reactants or products to the top of a potential energy diagram. Every reaction has activation energy
Spontaneous reaction process that occurs on its own, without outside involvement. Usually exothermic (-delta H) and increase in entropy (+delta S)
Created by: etucci
 

 



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