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JPChapter 2


Law of Mutliple Proportions if 2 elements can combine to form more than one compound- i.e. CO and CO2 (will do so in ratios of simple whole numbers, i.e. 1:1 1:2 in prev case)
Rutherford postulated that a paticles (nuclei that have lost their two electrons, and weigh much more than do electrons) should mostly go through goil foil, maybe with a little deflection from electrons; not so
Proton positivally charged particles
Electron negativally charged particles-1/1800 the mass of a proton or neutron
Neutrons neutral mass- slightly higher mass than a proton
Atomic Number number of protons- listed as whole number on periodic table
Mass Number total number of protons and neutrons
Isotope two or more atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Nuclide another term for one particular isotope
Group vertical column, see shared properties- 1-18
Period horizontal rows- end with noble gases
Metal malleable (can be pounded into thin sheets) and ductile (can be pulled into wires), they're lustrous and they conduct heat and elecrticity well (L)
Non-Metal usually gases or soft solids that don't conduct electricity or heat (R)
Group 1A alkali metals
Group 2A alkali earth metals
Group 7A halogens
Group B transition metals
Molecule an aggregate of at least 2 atoms held together in a definite arrangement by chemical forces (chemical bonds)- can be a pure element (H2), or a compound (H2O)
Chemical Formulas indicates the types of elements present and their relative proportions- ex. Na, H2, H2O, CO
Ionic Compound made up of positive and negative ions held together by electrostatic forces- metal (+) with mno-metal (-) - ex. NaCl, Fe2O3, Mg(NO3)2, NaNO3
Ion an atom or group of atoms possession a net positive or negative charge
Cation lose electron(s), have a positive charge- i.e. Na+
Anion gain electron(s), have negative charge- i.e. Cl-
Neutral Object contain equal numbers of positively and negatively charged particles
Molecular Formula show the number and type of each element present in a compound
Organic Compounds compounds containing carbon and a small number of other elements
Hydrocarbons are made of H and C, have certain functional groups that have predictable chemical properties
Empirical Formula the lowest whole number of elements in a compound
Monoatomic Ions ions of single atoms- i.e. MgCl2, Kl
Binary Ionic Compounds ionic compounds with two elements
Polyatomic Ions ions made up of two or more atoms- i.e. NO3= nitrate
Molecular compounds contain discrete molecular units- usually non-metals
Binary Molecular Compounds compounds named with the name and number of the first element followed by the name and number of the second element with its ending changed to "-ide"- i.e. HCl= hydrogen chloride, SiC= silicon Carbide
Acid produce H+ (in the form of H3O+) when dissolved in water- their formulas contain one or more H group in addition to an anion
Hydrate a substance that contains water molecules weakly bound in its crystals
Chemical Reaction indicates conversion of reactants to products- could be indicated by color chang, ppt, gas , heat, or nothing, rearrangements of atoms
Chemical Equation shorthand for what you start with going to what you get (balancing by inspection...
Created by: jpclark