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JPChapter 1


Matter anything that has mass and takes up space (macro/microscopic)
Chemistry the study of matter and the changes it undergoes
Mass describes the quantity of matter in an object
Weight the force of gravity exerted on an object- can be different on different planets, use the word weighing though we really mean massing
Law of Conservation of Mass in a non-nuclear chemical reaction, mass is not creatd or destroyed
Solid keeps shape and volume, low compressability
Liquid keep volume but not shape, relative compressability
Gas doesn't hold shape or volume, high compressability
Physical Changes invlove altering the physical state of a substance without changing its chemical composition (melting, freezing, boiling, condensation)
Physical Properties describes the color, odor, melting/freezing point, density, etc. of a substance and do not change the composition or identity of a substance
Chemical Changes involve altering chemical identity of a substance ( also called chemical reaction)
Chemical Properties characteristics of how a substances undergoes chemical change- such as: hydrogen burns in oxygen to make water
Pure Substance a single chemical entity- one kind of matter with a set of constant physical and chemical properties- may be element or a compound- it cannot be seperated into other kinds of matter by any physical properties
Element contain single type of atom- they cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction into simpler substances
Atom the smallest piece possible of an element
Elemental Symbols abbreviation used to represent an atom of a element- one or two letters, only first one is capitalized
Compound substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined
Law of Definite Proportions different samples of the same compound always contain its constituent elements in the same proportion by mass- i.e. all samples of CO2 have the same ratio by mass of C to O
Mixture contain two or more substances each or which retain it own distinct identity and can be seperated by physical means
Heterogeneous Mixture mixture has distinct phases or parts- i.e. oil and water, sand in water, iron fillings in salt
Homogeneous Mixture mixture has a uniform appearance and composition thoughout
Precision refers to the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity (values close together)
Accuracy refers to the closeness of a single measurement to its true value (close to true value)
Significant Figures number of meaningful digits in a repeated number, only the last digit in the number is not known with certainty
Doubtful Digit the last digit is uncertain but signficant- ex. when you measure a rod you get 9.12, 9.11, and 9.13; the first two numbers (9.1) are certain, the next digit is an estimate with some uncertainty
Scientific Notation used to remove ambiguity of a number- especially to simplify very large/small numbers
Exact Numbers have infinite number of significant figures (counted quantities, definitions)- ex. there are 9 coins in a bottle, 12 inches in a foot
Density how concentrated some form of matter is- specifically the ratio of mass to volume
Meter SI base unit of length
Kilogram SI base unit of mass
Second SI base unit of time
Derived Unit combinations of the fundalmetal quantities of length, mass, time, etc.- ex. density in g/mL, velocity in m/s
Temperature scale established by arbitrarily, but consistantly, setting fixed points and temperature increments called degrees
Factor-label/Dimensional Analysis Method used to convert one unit to another
Unit/Conversion Factors used to perform factor-label calculations- ex. 7 days in a week, 10 pennies to a dime
Created by: jpclark