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Chemistry ch. 7

TermDefinition
atomic radius (covalent radius) half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element that are joined together by a single covalent bond
The values of atomic radius increase down any one group in the periodic table for two reasons: 1. additional electrons are going into a new shell which is further from the nucleus. 2.Screening effect: inner shells of electrons help shield the outer electrons from the attractive force of the increasing nuclear charge.
The values of atomic radius decrease from left to right across a period in the periodic table for two reasons: 1. increasing nuclear charge. 2. no increase in the screening effect.(electron being added is going into the same outer shell)
First ionisation energy the energy required to completely remove the most loosely bound electron from a neutral gaseous atom.
the values of ionisation energy decrease down the groups in the periodic table for two reasons: 1. increasing atomic radius:outermost electrons are further away from the attractive force of the nucleus and are more easily removed. 2. Screening effect of inner electrons: outermost electrons are shielded from the attractive power of the nucleus
The values of ionisation energy increase across the periods in the peroiodic table for two reasons: 1. increasing nuclear charge: electrons are being held more firmly- require more energy to remove 2. decreasing atomic radius: outermost electrons are closer to the attractive power of the nucleus and are harder to remove
the values of electronegativity decrease down the groups in the periodic table for two reasons: 1. increasing atomic radius: smaller attraction between the nucleus and the shared pair of electrons. 2. screening effect of inner electrons: outermost electrons (involved in bonding) are shielded by the attraction of the nucleus.
the values in electronegativity increase across the periods in the periodic table for two reasons: 1. increasing nuclear charge: attraction between the nucleus and the outer electrons is increasing. 2. decreasing atomic radius: electrons in the outermost level are closer to the nucleus - greater force of attraction
Created by: sophielil