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Chemistry Ch. 4

TermDefinition
Element a substance that cannot be split up into simpler substances by chemical means
Triad a group of three elements with similar chemical properties in which the atomic weight of the middle element is approximately equal to the average of the other two
Newland's Octaves groups of elements arranged in order of increasing atomic weight, in which the first and the eight element of each group have similar properties.
Mendeleev's Periodic Law when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic weight (relative atomic mass), the properties of the elements vary periodically
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Modern periodic table an arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number
Modern Periodic law when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, the properties of the elements vary periodically.
mass number the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
isotopes atoms of the same element (ie. they have the same atomic number)that have different mass numbers due to the different number of neutrons in the nucleus.
Relative atomic mass -the average of the mass numbers of the isotopes of the element. -as they occur naturally. -taking their abundances into account -expressed on a scale in which atoms of the carbon-12 isotope have a mass of exactly 12 units.
Aufbau Principle when building up the electronic configuration of an atom in its ground state, the electrons occupy the lowest available energy level
Hund's Rule of Maximum Multiplicity when two or more orbitals of equal energy are available, the electrons occupy them singly before filling them in pairs
Pauli Exclusion Principle no more than two electrons may occupy an orbital and they must have opposite spin
Created by: sophielil