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Chem 110 Chap 3-4

Book: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach by Nivaldo J. Tro

Compounds are composed of... Atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Chemical bonds can be classified as... Ionic and covalent.
Describe Ionic bonds. Occur between metals and nonmetals and involve the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
Describe Covalent Bonds. Occur between two or more nonmetals and involve sharing of electrons between atoms.
In an Ionic bond the metal becomes a _________ and the non-metal becomes a __________. Cation, or positively charged ion -- Anion, or negatively charged ion.
In a covalent bond the shared electrons... ...interact with the nuclei.
What is a chemical formula, and what types of formulas are there? A formula that indicates the elements present in the compound and the relative number atoms or ions of each. Empirical, molecular, and structural formulas.
What is an empirical formula? An empirical formula gives the relative number of atoms of each element in a compound. Example: Hydrogen Peroxide HO
What is a molecular formula? A molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound. Exampe: Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2.
What is a structural formula? A structural formula uses lines to represent covalent bonds and shows how atoms in a molecule are connected or bonded to each other.
What is an atomic element? Elements that exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units. Example: Helium, is composed of helium atoms.
What is a molecular element? Does not normally exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units. These elements exist as molecules--two or more atoms of an element bonded together. Most exist as diatomic molecules. Example: Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Cl always exist with 2.
What is a molecular COMPOUND? Molecular compounds are usually composed of two or more covalently bonded nonmentals.
Name the elements that exist as diatomic elements. N (nitrogen), O (Oxygen), F (Flourine), Cl (Chlorine), Br (Bromine), I ( Iodine).
The basic unit of an ionic compound is the... Formula unit. Forumla unis are different from molecules in that they do not exist as discrete entities, but rather only as a part of a larger lattice.
What is a polyatomic ion? An ion composed of two or more atoms.
Ionic compounds always contain... Positive and negative ions.
In a chemical formula the sum of the... ...charges of positive ions (cations) must equal the sum of the charges of the negative ions (anions).
What is a 'common name' for an ionic compound? Common names, are nicknames learned by familiarity. NaCL (Table salt) and NaHCO3 (baking soda).
Name a few non group 1 or 2A metals whose charge do not change? Zn 2+ (Zinc), Sc 3+ (Scandium), Ag + (Silver).
What is a binary ionic compound? Those compounds that contain only two different elements that one is a metal, and the other non.
The name of a binary ionic compound takes what form? [Name of cation (Metal)] [Base name of anion (nonmetal) + -ide ] Example: KCl = Potassium chloride.
The name of a binary ionic compound containing a metal that forms more than one kind of cation takes what form? [ Name of Cation(metal) (Charge of metal cation in roman numerals in parentheses) ] [base name of non-metal anion + ide]
C2H3O2 Acetate (-)
CO3 Carbonate (2-)
HCO3 Hydrogen Carbonate (-) or bicarbonate
OH Hydroxide (-)
NO2 Nitrite (-)
CrO4 Chromate (2-)
Cr2O2 Dichromate (2-)
PO4 Phosphate (3-)
HPO4 Hydrogen Phosphate (2-)
H2PO4 Dihydrogen phosphate (-)
NH4 Ammonium (+)
ClO Hypochlorite (-)
ClO2 Chlorite (-)
ClO3 Chlorate (-)
ClO4 Perchlorate (-)
MnO4 Permanganate (-)
SO3 Sulfite (2-)
HSO3 Hydrogen sulfite (or bisulfite) (-)
SO4 Sulfate (2-)
HSO4 Hydrogen Sulfate (or bisulfate) (-)
CN Cyanide (-)
O2 Peroxide (2-)
Most polyatomic ions are _________. Give and also define the answer. Oxyaonions. Oxyanions are anions containing oxygen and another element.
Why is NO3 named nitrate and NO2 nitrite? Because there are two of this ions in a series, the one with more oxygen atoms gets the ending of -ate, the other with fewer gets -ite.
What if there are more than one polyatomic oxyanion in a series, what are their prefixes and suffixes? Hypo is the prefix with suffix ite, for the ion with the lowest charge, just -ite is given to the second lowest, and -ate to the second highest. The highest is given a prefix of per- and suffix -ate.
What are hydrates? Hydrates containa specific number of water molecules associated with each formula unit. MgSO4 * 7H2O, as a hydrate, is named Magnesium sulfate Heptahydrate.
In hydrates, waters of hydration can usually be removed by... ...Heating the compound.
What form does the binary molecular compound naming take?: [ prefix- Name of 1st Element ] [ prefix- Base name of 2nd element ] + -ide.
When writing a molecular compound, the first element is the... ...Metal-like one (toward the left and bottom of the periodic table). Write the name of the element with the smallest group number first. If the elements lie in the same group, then write the element with the greatest row number first.
Name the prefixes from 1 through 10 in that order (1-10). Mono = 1, di = 2, tri = 3, tetra = 4, penta = 5, hexa = 6, hepta = 7, octa = 9, nona = 9, deca = 10.
If there is only one atom of the first element in a formula the mono is... Normally omitted. (not used).
Name this molecular compound: NI3 Nitrogen Triiodide
Name this molecular compound: PCl5 Phosphorous Pentachloride
Name this molecular compound: P4S10 TetraPhosphorous DecaSulfide
What are acids? Acids are molecular compounds that release hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. They are composed of hydrogen and usually written first in their formula, with one or more nonmetals written second. Example: HCl
Acids are characterized by their... Acids are characterized by their sour taste and ability to dissolve many metals.
Acids can be categorized into two subsets. Name those subsets and describe them. Binary acids contain only two elements, Oxyacids contain oxygen.
Names of binary acids take what form? Prefix of Hydro -> Base name of nonmetal + suffix ' -ic ' -> the word acid
Name this acid: HBr Hydrobromic Acid
What are oxyacids? Oxyacids contain hydrogen and an oxyanion (an anion containing a nonmetal and oxygen). The common oxyanions are listed in the table of poly atomic ions. Example: HNO3 (aq) this contains the nitrate (NO3) ion.
What is the naming form for acids with oxyanions ending with -ate? Base name of Oxyanion + ic -> the word acid
What is the naming form for acids with oxyanions ending with -ite? Base name of Oxyanion + ous -> the word acid
Name this acid: HNO3 Nitric acid (because NO3 is nitrate and if the oxyanion ends with -ate, then we replace that prefix with -ic).
NO3 Nitrate (-)
Name this acid: H2SO3 Sulfurous acid (-ous is used because SO3 is sulfite, and prefix -ite gets -ous with acids).
What is formula mass? For any compound, the formula mass is the sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms in its chemical formula. Formula Mass = (# of atoms of 1 element x Amass of 1element) + (# of atoms of 2nd element x Amass of 2nd element).
What is molar mass of a compound? The molar mass of a compound-- the mass in grams of 1 mol of its molecules or formula units --is numerically equivalent to its formula mass.
What is mass percent composition, or mass percent, when referring to elemtns or compounds? It is that element's percentage of the compound's total mass. Mass % of ElmX = (Mass of ElmX in 1 mol of compound / mass of 1 mol of the compound) x 100%
What is combustion analysis? The unknown compound undergoes combustion (or burning) in the presence of pure oxygen. When burned the carbon in sample is converted to CO2 and Hydrogen is converted to H2O. These are both weighed and their masses used to determine the amounts of C & H.
Organic compounds are... Organic compounds are composed of carbon and hydrogen and a few other elements. Including nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.
What are Hydrocarbons? Give some examples? Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Example: oil, gas, liquid porpane gas, natural gas.
The coefficients in a chemical reaction... Specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the substances involved in the reaction.
What is molarity? A common way to describe or express the solution concentration. abbreviated M. The amount of solute in moles divided by the volume of the solution in liters.
What is soluable? If the compound dissolves in water.
What is insoluable? A compound that does not dissolve in water.
The solubility rule states that compounds containing what ion is soluble? Compounds containing the sodium ion are soluble.
Name a few Ions that are soluble w/o exceptions: Li, Na, K, NH4, NO3 and C3H3O2
Name a few ions that are soluble w/ exceptions: Cl, Br, and I Exceptions when paired with the following makes them insoluble: Ag+, Hg2(2+), Pb(2+).
SO4(2-) is soluble, but with which combinations is rendered insoluble? Sr2+,Ba 2+, Pb 2+, Ag +, Ca 2+
What is a precipitation reaction? Ones in which a solid precipitate forms when we mix two solutions.
What is an electrolyte? A substance that dissolves in water to form solutions that conduct electricity.
What are STRONG electrolytes? Substances such as sodium chloride that completely dissociate into ions when they dissolve in water.
What are nonelectrolytes? Compounds such as sugar that do not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. The resulting solution is called a nonelectrolyte solution.
What is CH4? Methane. Is a Hydrocarbon.
What is an -OH functional group? Alcohols are organic compounds that have an -OH.
Created by: aiur100